Mary Burke née McDonnell (1794–1869) of county Mayo

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… or more precisely: Mary Burke alias Hodder otherwise Anderson née McDonnell.
See also: — “The lot of the soldier’s wife was unenviable,”
and “Mary McDonnell in, ‘The lot of the soldier’s wife’ (revisited).”

Introduction

The very recent discovery (21st January 2021) of a marriage record held by Medway Archives in Kent, England has lifted Mary Burke née McDonnell’s life story out of a family history mystery. Previously, there was a gap of twenty odd years unaccounted for (1839–1860), and a strong suggestion of an irregular marriage. To tell Mary McDonnell’s story, this biographical sketch takes two forms:

  1. a narrative of Mary’s life as the wife of a soldier —John Burke, a regimental tailor— until his death at Chatham on 2nd May 1839; and,
  2. a timeline of events from May 1839 until her own death at Winchester in 1869.

Part I :: 1794–1839

Mary McDonnell was born c.1794 in the county of Mayo, townland and parish unknown. Until her husband, John Burke‘s death in 1839, we catch just one fleeting glimpse of Mary in the written record—the baptism of her daughter, Margaret, in Tralee, county Kerry.

A record of the marriage of John Burke and Mary McDonnell has not been found.1 Our first sighting of them as man and wife is in the record of the baptism of their daughter, Margaret Jane Burke, on the 11th May 1823. Margaret was baptised by the Rev. J. Quill in the chapel at Tralee, county Kerry—where John Burke was stationed with the 39th regiment of foot. The sponsors were Patrick Brenan, a tailor with the 39th, and Mary Galihir.2

When John’s regiment was subsequently posted to Limerick, five months after the birth of Margaret, thence to Cork one year later, 3 presumably Mary followed with babe in arms, and almost certainly by shank’s mare. In this and in other ways, the lot of the soldier’s wife was unenviable. There being no separate quarters for families, a shawl or a blanket suspended by the bed provided the merest pretence of privacy in barracks.

By November 1825, the 39th had shipped to Chatham, Kent, from which port most of the regiment shipped out to New South Wales during the next three years. 4 John stayed at Chatham as part of a depôt detachment, working as a regimental tailor. The family might have lived in barracks or, if John’s income were sufficient from the set rates paid for tailoring, they might have sought lodging in Chatham or Gillingham nearby. The birth of a son, James, at Gillingham on the 10th June 1829,5 implies residence either in the barracks at Brompton (which lies between Chatham and Gillingham), or in Gillingham town.

It would be tempting to believe that Mary’s husband worked in more favourable conditions than those soldiers who did “hard” service. However, the regimental tailors laboured in cramped, dank workshops that were poorly ventilated. Woe betide, then, the weakened constitution that came into contact with any of the tropical diseases brought to the depôt barracks from military outposts in tropical climes.

Mary’s husband, John, began to experience pain in his loins in 1834, spreading to his arms by 1836. He was invalided and sent to the General Hospital at Fort Pitt, once for Ague and twice for pain in the pit of his stomach. Inevitably, a regimental board convened, and ruled that John was unfit for Active duties of a Soldier in consequence of Rheumatic affection and Impaired constitution.6 After his discharge in August 1838, the family lived in Holborn Lane, Chatham.

Extract from Ordnance Survey Map, drawn between 1863–1865, of that neighbourhood or section of Chatham, Kent near Holborn Wharf, and highlighting Holborn Lane where Mary Burke née McDonnell lived with her family in 1838.
Chatham, on the Medway (c.1863); highlighting the location of Holborn Lane. Image credit.

Not long afterwards, in the summer or autumn of 1838, a young corporal named John Huggins, an Irishman posted with the 45th regiment at Canterbury, began to take an interest in their daughter, Margaret. The romance proceeded merrily along, until a marriage is presumed to have been solemnized in December of the same year. 7 John and Margaret Huggins’ first child, Mary Ann, was born on the 14th June 1839, at the Windsor barracks. 8

Unfortunately, however, Mary’s husband had died of fever just six weeks earlier, on the 2nd May.9 Widowed, in possession of a small pension perhaps, Mary was in no position to travel to Windsor to greet her new grandchild or to offer her daughter any support. Rather, she could only have been consumed with the question of how to support herself and her young son, James. Though her daughter had been just fifteen years old at the time of her marriage, it must have been a source of some relief for Mary Burke to know that Margaret was now provided for as the wife of John Huggins.


Part II: 1839–1869

An interesting trail of genealogical bread crumbs follows Mary from the time that her husband died at Chatham in May 1839, as detailed in the following timeline:

— 1839-05-08:

Six days after the death of her husband, Mary Burke made application to the Board of Guardians in Medway Union10The substance of this application is a pending research item.

— 1841 census:

The following census enumeration was found after the discovery of the 1854 marriage to Charles Hodder:

  • John Anderson, age 40 [born c.1801], occupation: Tailor, born in Ireland
  • Mary Anderson, age 45 [born c.1796], occupation: D [struck through], born in Ireland
  • James dto. [ditto], age 8, born in Kent
  • John dto., age 15, born in Ireland
  • Anne dto., age 2, born in Kent
  • census place: [The] Brook, Gillingham, Chatham, Kent 11
    — Notes: (1) that [text within square brackets] has been inserted by the transcriber. (2) Enumerators engaged to take the 1841 census in England were instructed to round adults’ ages up or down by five years. (3) Mary was the only Irish female Anderson enumerated in Chatham whose age was comparable to that of our Mary McDonnell. (4) Please also see the 1854 marriage to Charles Hodder.

Young James was almost certainly Mary’s son, though his age is short three years from that recorded on his 1843 attestation into the 39th regiment. This might mean that James’ age was misstated when he was given into the care of the British Army.12 The other two children might have been Mary’s, also. Hopefully, the workhouse application of 183913 will name them.

The map, below, shows the location of The Brook (lane), cited in the 1841 census, which lies just east of Holborn Lane where Mary had lived two years earlier:

Extract from Ordnance Survey Map, drawn between 1863–1865, of that neighbourhood or section of Chatham, Kent near Holborn Wharf, and highlighting first, Holborn Lane where Mary Burke née McDonnell lived with her family in 1838; and second, The Brook, a lane a few hundred yards east, in 1851.
Chatham, on the Medway (c.1863); highlighting Holborn Lane and The Brook. Image credit.

… Who was John Anderson?

According to his British Army service record, John Anderson hailed from the town of Sligo. He was twenty-five years of age (born c.1801) and a tailor by trade when he attested to the 3rd (Buffs) Regiment of Foot at St Albans in Flintshire in 1826. His total period of service was 13 years 240 days, of which 10 years 8 months were with the regiment in India. Having a good character, Mr Anderson was promoted to Corporal. However, he was hospitalized frequently from about 1834 and by 6th May 1840, was transferred into the General Hospital at Fort Pitt, Chatham. Several days later, Corporal Anderson was discharged unfit for further service on 10th May 1840. At that time, John stood 5ft. 7-1/2in. tall, and had light coloured hair, grey eyes, and a fair complexion.14

Little else has been gleaned about this man, in large part because the church records for the parish of St John in Sligo survive from the relatively late date of 1858. The surname, Anderson, was well known in the town. Slater’s Directory of Ireland (1846) published the following Anderson entries: 15

      • Charles Anderson, 49 Mall – publican
      • John Anderson, 1 New Bridge st – grocer
      • John Anderson, 12 Market st – tallow chandler
      • Richard Anderson, 14 Knox st – wine & spirit merchant
      • Samuel Anderson, New Bridge st – publican

Denominationally, the Andersons of county Sligo appear to have been Roman Catholic or converts to Methodism.16, 17

— 1843:

On the 10th February, 1843, Mary’s son, James Burke, was attested to the 39th regiment at the age of thirteen years eight months. The 39th was the same in which his late father, John Burke, had served. James was born at Gillingham, taken into the regiment at Rochester (the town due northwest of Chatham), and given the post of drummer. 18 It was a fairly common practice for a regiment to take in the underage son of a deceased soldier as a drummer or a servant.

— 1851 census:

By 1851, the children were no longer in the home, and the household was again enumerated in The Brook (lane) in Gillingham.

  • John Anderson, head, married, age 52, occupation: tailor; born in Sligo, Ireland
  • Mary Anderson, wife, married, age 50 [sic]; born in Mayo, Ireland
  • Thomas Allen, traveller, married, age 31; born at Ludlow, Shropshire
  • Maria Allen, wife, married, age 23, born in Surrey
  • John William Allen, son, age 13 days; born at Chatham, Kent
  • census place: [The] Brook, Gillingham, Chatham, Kent 19
    — Note: Mary was the only Irish female Anderson born in Ireland, living in Chatham.

— 1853-06-10:

John Anderson died at home in Chatham on 10th June 1853. His age at death was registered as sixty years [sic], and the informant was a woman named Mary Ann Court.20 His body was buried in St Mary’s churchyard, Chatham.21

—1854-08-04:

On this date, Mary Anderson [sic] married Charles Hodder, a Chelsea pensioner, in St Mary’s church in Chatham.22 It would have been very easy to overlook this record but for the facts that Mary Anderson was of the expected age (born c.1794) and her father’s name was given as John Macdonald, which surname is a spelling variant of McDonnell. This information, taken together with the 1841, 1851, and 1861 census enumerations, yield a high degree of probability that the woman who married Charles Hodder was our Mary McDonnell. However, Mary would use the Burke surname when it served a particular purpose, as we shall see.

… Who were the witnesses to the marriage?

Witnesses to the marriage of Mary Anderson and Charles Hodder. Image credit.

The signature of the first witness is difficult to read. On first glance, the signature looks like Gurfa Bouke, but was it rather, Sarah Bourke? or some other name? Joseph, perhaps?

The second witness, Ellen Slattery, might have been the same who was recorded in the 1851 census as born in Ireland c.1825, the wife of Thomas Slattery, Chelsea pensioner. The couple lived in Smiths Court, Gillingham.23

… Who was Charles Hodder?

Charles Hodder was born in Croydon, Surrey c.1805,24 the son of Richard Hodder, a cabinet maker.25, 26 In 1820, when he was but fifteen years of age, Charles married Catherine Page of Croydon, daughter of James Page and Elizabeth, his wife.27, 28 A child of this union, Henry James Page Hodder, was born in Croydon later in the year.29

A little more than two years after the marriage, Charles Hodder attested to the 3rd (Buffs) Regiment of Foot in London. His military, as well as his marital, careers appear to have been chequered by periodic misconduct in the first instance, and by a bigamous marriage in the second. On the 14th December 1840, he married Eliza Gordon at Kurnaul in West Bengal.30 Eliza died at Meerut in December, 1842, aged twenty-six years.31, 32 Meanwhile, back in England, Charles’ first wife, Catherine, died in Croydon Union Workhouse in June, 1841.33, 34 She was in her thirty-ninth year, and her son, Henry, had predeceased her in 1835.35

Charles Hodder was pensioned out at Allahabad on 21st September 1844, having been discharged unfit for further service in consequence of debility and [a] worn out constitution.36 He stayed on in West Bengal as a resident where he married Elizabeth Korral née Donavan at Fort William in 1845.37 No trace has been found of Elizabeth Hodder formerly Donavan née Korral (born c.1801).

Beyond this event, Charles Hodder’s movements could not be ascertained during the nine-year period, 1845–1854.

… Who was John Macdonald or McDonnell?

The name, John Macdonald, was written into the 1854 marriage record as the father of Mary McDonnell. His occupation was recorded as smith. Research into possible connections with other Macdonald or McDonnell smiths in county Mayo is presented on another page. (pending)

— 1855-10-08:

After twenty-one years’ service in the British Army, Mary’s son-in-law, John Joseph Huggins (1816–1876), a Colour Sergeant with the 54th Regiment, was pensioned out at the Tower of London. John and Margaret (Mary’s daughter) had been posted to the island of Saint Helena for most of the 1840s, and had recently returned from a posting at Fort Henry in Canada West.38

—1859-07-19:

On the 19th July 1859, Mary’s son, James Burke—then thirty years old, and suffering from phthisis (tuberculosis)—was discharged from the 39th regiment, at Québec. The discharge papers recorded his intention to reside at Chichester in Sussex.39

— 1860-01-02:

James Burke died in the High Street, Chichester, on the 2nd January, 1860. The civil registration confirmed that James was a Chelsea (army) pensioner, and that the cause of death was phthisis pulmonalis. The informant to the registrar was Charles Hodder, present at the death, High Street, Chichester. 40

— 1860-04-11:

A scant four months later, Charles Hodder died at Chichester on 11th April. The cause of death, confirmed by inquest, was recorded as concussion of the brain, caused by a fall on the ground, whilst intoxicated after an interval of seven hours.41

An inquest was held, the proceedings of which were reported in the 21st April 1860 edition of The Hampshire Telegraph: 42

Inquest.—On the 12th inst. an inquest was held before J. Powell, Esq., City Coroner, at Harmsworth’s Brewery, on the Old Broyle [in Chichester], to investigate the circumstances attending the death of Charles Hodder, a Chelsea pensioner, 66 [sic] years of age. It appeared by the evidence that on the preceding day the deceased was seen staggering in Chapel-street very much intoxicated, and that he fell several times, in one of which his head had come in contact with the wall of a house, whereby a severe wound had been inflicted. He was conveyed to his home, but as he did not rally, Mr. F. St. Quintin Bond, the House Surgeon of the Infirmary, was sent for, but did not arrive in time to see him alive. That gentleman made a post mortem examination, and stated that the skull was not fractured, but the brain was much congested, and there was no doubt death had been caused by concussion of the brain, accelerated, in all probability, by excessive drinking. A verdict to that effect was returned.

The 19th April 1860 edition of The Brighton Gazette reported the inquest in greater detail: 43

Inquest.—Death through Drink.—An inquest was held at Harmsworth’s Brewery, Somer’s Town, on Thursday afternoon, on the body of Charles Hodder, 66 [sic] years of age, a Chelsea pensioner, who met his death in the following manner:—George Wright Parker, a butcher, saw deceased about half-past three o’clock on Wednesday, in Chapel Street, drunk and staggering about; his wife was with him; he fell down twice, and witness and another picked him up and took him home. Saw that he had a wound on the back of his head, caused by his falling against the wall of a house; it was bleeding a little. They remained with him about three quarters of an hour after they had got him home. Mary Burke, living in the same house with deceased and his wife, saw deceased brought in by the young men. After he had been home about half an hour, he laid down before the fire for a time, and witness went to bed about half-past ten. Had not been long gone when deceased’s wife called her down. When she went down she found deceased lying on the bed and quiet. Deceased had been lately given to drinking. Mr. F. St. Quinton Bond, House Surgeon of the Infirmary, deposed that deceased was a patient under him. Saw him at the Infirmary on Wednesday morning. In the evening was sent for about eleven o’clock and found that he was just dead. There was a large scalp wound, which laid the bone bare, and there had been considerable effusion of blood. He made a post mortem examination of the body. The skull was not fractured, but the brain was very much congested. Witness attributed the cause of death to concussion of the brain, and had no doubt that the drink deceased had, accelerated death. The wound on the head was such as might be caused by a cut from a stone. Verdict accordingly.

… Why would Mary Burke refer to herself as other than the wife of Charles Hodder?

In the Brighton Gazette extract above, Mary Burke was recorded as having made two startling remarks: first, that she lived in the same house with deceased and his wife; and second, that she was upstairs when Charles’ wife called her down.

If Mary was still in receipt of a widow’s pension from her marriage to John Burke, which she could ill afford to lose, this might explain the verbal sleight of hand. To provide some context, having a widow’s pension presumes that John Burke had either obtained approval to marry from his regiment, or that Mary was taken on the strength of her husband’s regiment at a later date.44 Confirmation of an approval of that (first) marriage was not recorded in John Burke’s service record, and it is worth mentioning that only about 4% to 6% of such marriages were approved.45 However, she might have been taken on the strength when the depôt company of the 39th regiment was sent from Ireland to Chatham in about 1825-28. The depôt at Chatham consisted of two captains, two lieutenants, one ensign, five serjeants, six corporals, four drummers, and thirteen privates.46 Mary’s husband was a private, and the regimental tailor. In this situation, Mary would have received only half rations but would have been in a position to earn income by charring, washing, and mending for the officers, and dressmaking for their wives.47 Of course, a widow lost her pension if she remarried. — Thus, if we assume that Mary then qualified for a widow’s pension, it follows that she would have done whatever was necessary to protect that income, no matter how meagre. 

Would this exigency have driven Mary to hiding from public broadcast, via the journals of the day, the fact of her marriage to Charles Hodder? and contriving references to living in the same house with Charles Hodder and his wife, and later being called downstairs by that wife? In fact, the first contrivance would have been true.

… and what of Mr. F. St. Quinton Bond, House Surgeon of the Infirmary, who would have seen Mary in the house the night that Charles Hodder died, and again next day during the inquest? Did he hear Mary’s witness testimony? Was he sympathetic to her precarious financial state and thus, overlooked the invention?

Given Mary Burke’s testimony at the inquest, one would be tempted to dismiss the marriage to Charles Hodder but for the following:

— 1861 census:

By 1861, Mary Hodder was living in her daughter Margaret’s household in Waltham Abbey: 48

  • John Huggins, head, married, age 44; Pensioner & Drill Instructor; born in Tyrone, Ireland
  • Margrat Huggins, wife, age 38; born in Kerry, Ireland
  • Elizabeth Huggins, daughter, age 11, scholar; born at St Helena, Africa
  • Amalia Huggins, daughter, age 7, scholar; born at Kingston, Canada
  • Sarah S. Huggins, daughter, age 5, Pensioner’s daughter; born at Barnet, Middlesex
  • William H. Huggins, son, age 2; born at Barnet, Middlesex
  • Mary Hodder, mother in law, widow, age 67 [born c.1794], a Pensioner Widow; born in Mayo, Ireland
  • census place: 7 Factory Road, Waltham Holy Cross civil parish, Waltham Abbey, Essex

It seems most likely that either Mary’s daughter, Margaret, or her husband, John Huggins (as opposed to Mary herself), would have provided this data to the census enumerator. Here, I would add that a study of the Huggins family’s genealogical records shows that John Huggins and his wife, Margaret, were scrupulous in their habits in giving consistent information to census enumerators, and in registering their family’s vital events. Because of this, I believe that John and Margaret were reporting the surname which referred to Mary’s most recent marital attachment.

— circa 1862:

John Huggins obtained a position as Sergeant of the Hampshire Militia, stationed at Winchester. The family upped sticks again, and removed to that ancient city sometime between August 1861 when daughter, Kate, was born at Waltham Abbey and March 1865, when son, Samuel John, was born at Winchester.49

— 1869-05-14:

On this date, Mary Burke [alias Hodder] died in the Workhouse Infirmary at Winchester. The death was registered with the surname, Burke, and her rank recorded as widow of John Burke, soldier.50

… What might explain this reversion in surname?

The answer might relate to the rules of admission to a workhouse, whether to lodging indoors, for outdoor relief, or by admission to the infirmary. The laws for making workhouse costs chargeable back to an inmate’s parish having expired in 1834, it seems most likely that Mary —or her family, or the workhouse master in her behalf— had to apply to the British Army to divert her widow’s pension to the infirmary. As the widow of a soldier who died at Chatham, it isn’t too difficult to imagine the difficulty involved in submitting an application as Mary Hodder, who had been in receipt of John Burke‘s pension.

Interestingly, the following note was penned into John Burke’s army service record on the 6th July 1868:

Capt’n Nicholson in behalf of Widow for Marriage Cert’n Ans’d 6/7/68 off LB3

Notes: — (i) It seems unlikely that Captain Nicholson was writing in behalf of Mary Hodder, but rather for Mary Burke. (ii) Consistent with the poor law guardians’ desire to keep the poor rates (taxes) as low as possible, it seems likely that this certification had been requested by the workhouse master in Winchester.


Source citation for this page: — Kilpatrick, Alison. “Biographical sketch for Mary Burke née McDonnell (1794–1860) of county Mayo.” Published online to Arborealis, arborealis.ca/family-history/irish/mcdonnell/bio-mary-d1869/, 24th January 2021; accessed [insert date of access].

Image credits, in order of presentation:

  • Ordnance Survey (UK). Kent XIX (includes: Chatham; Frindsbury Extra; Rochester). Surveyed 1863–1865, published 1869. Digital image hosted online by the National Library of Scotland (accessed 2021-01-17). Edited by Alison Kilpatrick (2021) by cropping map to that part of the town of Chatham near Holborn Wharf, and to highlight the location of Holborn Lane.
  • Ordnance Survey map, Kent IX, op. cit. Edited by Alison Kilpatrick (2021) to show both Holborn Lane and The Brook (lane).
  • Signatures of witnesses to the marriage of Charles Hodder and Mary Anderson in 1854, from the parish of St Mary (Chatham) marriage record, op. cit. Edited by Alison Kilpatrick (2021) by enlarging pictures with higher resolution, and colourization.

See also:

Footnotes:

  1. Note:—Every parish register in the county of Mayo has been scanned by the writer for a marriage occurring before May, 1823.
  2. Irish Genealogy. Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Ireland. Church Records. Extract: Margaret Burk, date of baptism: 11 May 1823; father: John Burk, mother: Mary McDonnell, address: New Barracks, Tralee, county Kerry; baptised by the Rev. J. Quill, sponsors: Patrick Brenan, Mary Gallihir, Roman Catholic parish church at Tralee, county Kerry; book no. 3, page 10, entry no. 106, record identifier KY-RC-BA-457560 (accessed 2012-03-25).
  3. Cannon, Richard. Historical Record of the Thirty-Ninth or the Dorsetshire Regiment of Foot. London: Parker, Furnivall and Parker, 1853 (pp. 65–7).
  4. Cannon, Historical Record of the Thirty-Ninth, op. cit.
  5. British Army Service Records, 1760–1913. James Burke (1829–1860) of Gillingham, Kent; drummer, drum major, and private soldier for the 39th Regiment of Foot; regimental no. 2397. Original record held by The National Archives (Kew, Surrey); archival ref. WO 97/1512/32 (accessed and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2013-06-16).
  6. British Army Service Records, 1760–1915. John Burke (1795–1839), Claremorris, county Mayo, regimental tailor, 96th and 39th Regiments of Foot. Original record: The National Archives (TNA), London. Archival ref. WO97/551/9. Photocopy obtained by research commissioned from Dr. Christopher Watts, military historian, 2003; confirmed to digitised copies held online by FindMyPast™ (accessed and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2012-03-25).
  7. Note:—John Huggins obtained three weeks’ leave from Canterbury to Chatham in December, 1838. Source: The National Archives. British Army. Pay Lists, 45th Regiment of Foot. Extract: March 1838, John Huggins received into 1st Battalion from Depot at Canterbury; from April to June, and Sept. to Dec., at Canterbury; October to December – at Canterbury, on pass to Chatham December 1–24, returned on 24th December 1838. Archival reference WO 12/5747. Research commissioned from R.N., military researcher (London), 7 December 2004.
  8. General Register Office, England & Wales. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth. Extract: Mary Ann Huggins, date of birth: 14 June 1839, place of birth: Windsor, Berkshire, England; father: John Huggins, Corporal, 45th Reg’t of Foot; mother: Margaret Huggins formerly Burke; registered in Windsor Registration District, informant: John Huggins, father. Copy purchassed by Alison Kilpatrick, application no. PAS 493279, registration no. BXCA277019 (2004-03-11).
  9. General Register Office, England & Wales. Certified Copy of Entry of Death. Extract: John Burke, male, age 41 years, Tailor; died 2 May 1839, Holborn Lane, Chatham, England; cause of death: fever; informant: Ann Harfleet, Holborn Lane, present at death; registration district: Medway, subdistrict: Rochester. Copy purchased by Alison Kilpatrick, application no. 3949627-1, DYD 245150 (2012-03-28).
  10. Collins, Deborah, compiler. Index for the Minutes of the Board of Guardians, Medway Union. Index entry: Mary Burke, 8th May 1839. Record held by Medway Archives (Chatham, Kent), “Minutes of the Board of Guardians,” archival ref. G/ME/AM/2 (14 Aug 1837 – 10 June 1840), Kent Poor Law Union, 1835–1841. Index online at FindMyPast™ (accessed 2021-01-21). — Note: The Medway Union workhouse book entries for this year are not available online. The entries or document need to be obtained from Medway Council Heritage Services, which are closed at the time of writing.
  11. England 1841 Census. Household of John Anderson, age 40, and Mary [alias] Anderson, age 45, in Chatham, Kent. Original record: Census Returns of England and Wales, 1841. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1841. Archival ref. HO 107, piece 487, book 2, folio 8, pg. 8; civil parish of Chatham, hundred of Chatham and Gillingham, registration district: Medway, sub-registration district: Gillingham, enumeration district no. 16. Digital image online at Ancestry™ (accessed and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2021-01-21).
  12. British Army Service Records, 1760–1913. James Burke (1829–1860) of Gillingham, Kent; drummer, drum major, and private soldier for the 39th Regiment of Foot; regimental no. 2397. Original record held by The National Archives (Kew, Surrey); archival ref. WO 97/1512/32 (accessed and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2013-06-16).
  13. Collins, Minutes of Guardians, Medway Union, op. cit.
  14. British Army Service Records, 1760–1915. John Anderson, born c.1801 in the parish of St John, county Sligo; Corporal, 3rd (Buffs) Regiment of Foot. Original record: The National Archives (TNA), London. Archival ref. WO97/248/13. Digital images online by FindMyPast™ (accessed and extract by Alison Kilpatrick, 2021-01-22).
  15. Slater, Isaac. National Commercial Directory of Ireland. Extracts from the town of Sligo for the Anderson surname, pp. 137–41. Manchester: Isaac Slater, 1846.
  16. Scan of Anderson births in county Sligo from 1858–1868 per search of Ancestry,™ 24th January 2021.
  17. Nicholson, Alex. “Andersons of Sligo.” Online at Anderson Family History, Sligo (accessed 2021-01-22. — Please note that Mr Nicholson’s pages refer to specific branches of the surname in Sligo.
  18. British Army Service Record, James Burke (1829–1860, op. cit.
  19. England 1851 Census. Household of John Anderson, age 52, and wife, Mary (50), with lodgers; in Gillingham, Chatham, Kent. Original record: Census Returns of England and Wales, 1851. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1851. Archival ref. HO 107, piece 1611, folio 24, pg. 40; registration district: Medway, sub-registration district: Gillingham, enumeration district no. 1a. Digital image online at Ancestry™ (accessed and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2021-01-21).
  20. General Register Office, England and Wales. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death. Extract: Registration district: Chatham, sub-district: Gillingham, County of Kent. Date and place of death: 10th June 1853, Brook, Chatham. Decedent: John Anderson, male, aged 60 years [sic], rank: pensioner, 3rd Regiment; cause of death: disease of heart 2 years, dropsy 2 months, certified; informant: Mary Ann Court of Brook, Chatham, present at the death; registered 30th June 1853, registrar: [–] Tracy. Copy purchased by Alison Kilpatrick, 24 January 2021; archival ref. COL826440/2021. — Note: The informant, Mary Ann Court of the Brook, Chatham, could not be found in that neighbourhood in either the 1851 or 1861 censuses. However, one Mary Ann Court d.1858 in Medway RD, aged c.77 years, while another Mary Ann Court b.1813 in Chatham was living with John Court 44 miles away in Eastry, Kent in 1851/61. The elder Mary Ann Court was the more likely to have been the informant.
  21. Church of England. Parish of St Mary, Chatham. Solemnization of a Burial. Extract: John Anderson of Chatham, aged 60 years; buried on 13th June 1853 by the Rev. G. Chambers, Curate. Original record held by Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre, archival ref. P85/1/89, pg. 29, no. 231 Digital image online at Medway Archives (accessed 2021-01-21).
  22. Church of England. Parish of St Mary, Chatham. Solemnization of a Marriage. Extract: Marriage solemnized at the Parish Church in the Parish of Chatham in the County of Kent. 1854 August 4. Charles Hodder, age 49 [born c.1805], widower, occupation: pensioner; residence: [The] Brook, Chatham; father: Richard Hodder, cabinet maker. Mary Anderson (signed with her mark), age 60 [born c.1794], widow; residence: ditto.; father: John Macdonald, smith. Married in the parish church according to the rites and ceremonies of the Established Church after Banns by the Rev. Robert F. Wheeler, Curate; witnesses: (i) Gurfa? [Sarah? or George? The writing is nearly illegible] Bourke or Burke or Bowke; and (ii) Ellen Slattery (signed with her mark). Original record held by Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre, archival ref. P85/1/61, no. 121. Digital image online at Medway Archives (accessed 2021-01-21).
  23. England 1851 Census. Household of Thomas Slattery, age 44, with wife, Ellen (26), in Gillingham, Kent. Original record: Census Returns of England and Wales, 1851. Kew, Surrey, England: The National Archives of the UK (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO), 1851. Archival ref. HO 107, piece 1611, folio 541, pg. 30; Medway registration district, Gillingham sub-registration district, enumeration district no. 2b. Digital images online at Ancestry™ (accessed and extract by Alison Kilpatrick, 2021-01-22).
  24. British Army Service Records, 1760–1913. Charles Hodder (c.1805–1860) of Croydon, Surrey; Private, 3rd (Buffs) Regiment. Original record held by The National Archives (Kew, Surrey); archival ref. WO 97/252/83. Digital images online at FindMyPast™ (accessed and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2014-01-23).
  25. Church of England, parish of St Mary (Chatham, Kent), marriage of Charles Hodder and Mary Anderson, op. cit.
  26. England 1841 Census. Household of Richard Hodder, age 65, cabinet maker, in Croydon, Surrey. Original record: Census Returns of England and Wales, 1841, The National Archives of the UK, Kew, Surrey. Archival ref. HO107, piece 1078, book 6, folio 24, page 40; Croydon registration and sub-registration district, hundred: Wallington (1st division). Digital image online at Ancestry™ (accessed 2014-01-25).
  27. Church of England. Parish of St Mary, Lambeth (Surrey). Register of Marriages. Extract: Charles Hodder of the parish, a minor, and Catherine Page of the parish, spinster (signed with her mark); married by banns with consent of parents on 17th February 1820 by the Rev. Arthur Gibson, Curate; witnesses: James Longman Gawler [?], Jo’n Seager [?]. Register held at the London Metropolitan Archives; archival ref. P85/MRY1, item 400, pg. 105, no. 314. Digital image online at Ancestry™ (accessed 2014-01-23).
  28. Church of England. Parish of St John, Croydon, Surrey. Solemnization of a Baptism. Extract: Catherine Page, female, born 23 January 1803, daughter of James and Elizabeth Page; baptised 29 January 1806 at Saint John the Baptist in Croydon, Surrey. Sources: (i) Microfilm copy of original record held by the Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah (FHL film no. 994332); index online, “England: Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975,” at Ancestry™ (accessed 2018-01-01). (ii) Surrey History Centre; Woking, Surrey, England; Surrey Church of England Parish Registers; Reference: 2888/1/11.
  29. Church of England. Parish of St John, Croydon, Surrey. Solemnization of a Baptism. Extract: Henry James Page Hodder, son of Charles Hodder, baker, and Catherine, his wife; baptised 1st October 1820 by the Rev. Edmund Harden, Curate. Original record: Anglican Parish Registers, Surrey History Centre, Woking, Surrey; archival ref. 2888/1/12, pg. 275, no. 2197. Digital image online at Ancestry™ (accessed 2014-01-23).
  30. India Office, British Library. Family History Search. Index entry: Eliza Gordon, and Charles Hodder, Private, H.M. 3d (Buffs) Regiment; marrried at Kurnaul, 14th December 1840. Archival ref. N/1/61 f.24. Index entry online at India Office: Family History Search indiafamily.bl.uk/ (accessed 2015-03-17).
  31. Presidency of Bengal (East Indies). Burials at Meerut. Extract: Eliza Hodder, aged 26 years, wife of Sergt. [sic] [I. or J.?] Hodder, H.M. 3d Buffs; buried 11th December 1842 by C. Garbett. Original record held by the British India Office, The British Library, archival ref. N-1-63, pg. 571. Digital image online at findmypast.co.uk (accessed 2015-03-17).
  32. This was the bigamous marriage. However, the 1837 Mutiny Act* encouraged this kind of behaviour by exempting soldiers from responsibility for supporting their wives and children. *Legally entitled, Anno Regni Gulielmi IV. Britanniarum Regis, Septimo. An Act for punishing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the better Payment of the Army and their Quarters; abbreviated, 7 Will. 4 & 1 Vict., Cap. VII.
  33. General Register Office, England and Wales. Index of Civil Registrations of Deaths. Index entry: Catherine Hodder, 2nd quarter ending 30th June 1841, Croydon RD (Surrey), vol. 4, pg. 68. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, 2021-01-23).
  34. Church of England. Parish of St John the Baptist, Croydon, Surrey. Solemnization of a Burial. Extract: Catherine Hodder, resident of the Union Workhouse, Croydon, Surrey; buried 23rd June 1841, aged 38 years, by Arthur G. Baxter, Curate. Original record: Anglican Parish Registers, Surrey History Centre, Woking, Surrey; archival ref. 2888/1/55. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed 2014-01-23).
  35. Church of England. Parish of St John, Croydon, Surrey. Solemnization of a Burial. Extract: Henry James Page Hodder, aged 14 years, buried on 5th March 1835 by the Rev. C.T. Robinson, Curate. Original record: Anglican Parish Registers, Surrey History Centre, Woking, Surrey; archival ref. 2888/1/54, pg. 203, no. 1617. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed 2014-01-23).
  36. British Army service record, Charles Hodder (1805–1860), op. cit.
  37. India, Marriages, 1792–1948. Charles Hodder, son of Richard, age 43, and Elizabeth Korral formerly Donovan, daughter of John Korral, age 44, married 28th January 1845 at Fort William, Bengal. Microfilm copy of original record held by the Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah (FHL film no. 498983); index online at Intellectual Reserve, Inc.; indexing project batch no. M75005-1 (accessed 2014-01-23.
  38. British Army Service Records, 1760–1913. John Joseph Huggins (1816–1876), born in or near Caledon, county Tyrone, attested 30th June 1834, service no. 2841, pensioned out 8th October 1855. Original record: National Archives, London, England; archival ref. WO97/1555/2841. Copies obtained by research commissioned from Dr. Christopher Watts, military historian (2003).
  39. British Army Service Record, James Burke (1829–1860), op. cit.
  40. General Register Office, England & Wales. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death. Extract: James Burke, male, 27 years [sic], Chelsea Pensioner, died 2 January 1860, High Street, Chichester, Hampshire, occupation: Chelsea Pensioner; cause of death: Phthisis pulmonalis (certified). Informant: Charles Hodder, present at the death, High Street, Chichester. Copy purchased by Alison Kilpatrick, application no. 4960664-3, certificate no. DYD 525475 (2014-01-25).
  41. General Register Office, England & Wales. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death. Extract: Charles Hodder, male, sixty-six years, Chelsea Pensioner, died 11 April 1860, High Street, Chichester, Hampshire, cause of death: Concussion of the brain, caused by a fall on the ground, whilst intoxicated after an interval of seven hours, information received from James Powell, Coroner for the City of Chichester; inquest held 13th April 1860. Copy purchased by Alison Kilpatrick, application no. 4999334-13, certificate no. DYD 534390 (2014-01-25).
  42. The Hampshire Telegraph, 21 April 1860. “Inquest.” Citing the death of Charles Hodder, a Chelsea pensioner, aged 66 years, in Chichester, Sussex. Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive,™ per The British Library Board (accessed 2015-03-23).
  43. The Brighton Gazette, 19 April 1860. “Inquest.” Citing the death of Charles Hodder, aged 66 years, a Chelsea pensioner who died at Chichester, Sussex; includes witness testimony given by Mary Burke. Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive,™ per The British Library Board (accessed 2015-03-23).
  44. “Taken on the strength” is a British and British Commonwealth term, meaning that a person has been added to a military unit.
  45. Lomas, Janis. “‘Delicate Duties’ : Issues of class and respectability in government policy towards the wives and widows of British soldiers in the era of the Great War.” Women’s History Review. Vol. 9, No. 1 (2000), pp. 123–24.
  46. Cannon, Richard. Historical Record of the Thirty-Ninth or the Dorsetshire Regiment of Foot. London: Parker, Furnivall and Parker, 1853 (pp. 65–67).
  47. White, Mr. “Service in the British Army.” Published on 16th March 2018 to Forces War Records online, forces-war-records.co.uk (accessed 2021-01-24).
  48. England 1861 Census. John Huggins, age 44), with wife Margrat [Margaret], Margaret’s mother, Mary Hodder (61), and John and Margaret’s children at home: Elizabeth (11), Amalia (7), Sarah S. (5), and William H. (2); Waltham Holy Cross civil parish, Waltham Abbey, Essex. Original record: The National Archives (UK), PR; archival refs. RG9/801, ED 1, folio 27, pg 48, household schedule no. 296, GSU no. 542703, enumerated 7th April 1861; registration district: Edmonton, sub-registration district: Waltham Abbey. Data obtained from 1861 Census of England CD (purchased by Alison Kilpatrick from Archive CD Books UK, 2004).
  49. General Register Office, England & Wales. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth given at the General Register Office. Extract: Samuel John Huggins, born 23 March 1864, at North View, St. Faith, Winchester, Hampshire; registration district: Winchester, county of Southampton; father: John Huggins, Sergt., Hampshire Militia; mother: Margaret Huggins formerly Burke; informant: M. Huggins, mother, North View, St. Faith, Winchester, registered 2nd May 1864. Copy purchased by Alison Kilpatrick, 2003-06-13; archival ref. registration no. CM 628854, file no. 374.
  50. General Register Office, England & Wales. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death. Extract: Mary Burke, female, age 77 years [born c.1792], widow of John Burke, Soldier; died 14 May 1869, Hospital, Winchester Union Workhouse, Hampshire; cause of death: paralysis (certified); informant: Mr. Jewell, Union Workhouse, Winchester, present at the death. Copy purchased by Alison Kilpatrick, 2014-01-02; archival ref. application no. 5356201-1, certificate no. DYD 622740.