St. Helena timeline: 1846

Sources are provided [within square brackets] at the end of each timeline entry, except for those sources which repeat. Recurring sources are (indicated by round parentheses), with the source citation abbreviated as shown in the following key:

  • BNA: The British Newspaper Archive, britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed 2015-05-16, 2015-06-27ff, by subscription); transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick.
  • Bertram 1852: St. Helena and the Cape of Good Hope: or, Incidents in the Missionary Life of the Rev. James M'Gregor Bertram, of St. Helena, by Edwin F. Hatfield (New York: Edward H. Fletcher, 1852).
  • Jackson: St. Helena: The Historic Island, by E.L. Jackson (New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1905).
  • Lords 1849: Great Britain. House of Lords. Report of the Select Committee of the House of Lords, appointed to consider the best Means which Great Britain can adopt for the Final Extinction of the African Slave Trade, Session 1849, ordered by the House of Commons to be Printed, 15 February 1850.
  • Mellis: St. Helena: A Physical, Historical, and Topographical Description of the Island, by John Charles Mellis (London: L. Reeve & Co., 1875).
  • Merchants 1848: The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review, Vol. XIX (July–Dec. 1848), conducted by Freeman Hunt (New York: 142 Fulton Street, 1848).
  • Old Saints: The St. Helena Regiment, ‘The Old Saints, on the Saint Helena Island Info web site, http://sainthelenaisland.info/regiment.htm (accessed 2015-05-16).
  • SHII: Saint Helena Island Info (accessed 2015-06-28ff).
  • Slave 1847: Great Britain. Accounts and Papers: Thirty-Seven Volumes. (34.) Slave Trade. Session 19 January – 23 July 1847. Vol. LXVII.

Please note: Some articles contain language and characterizations which may have been in common use at the time the articles or stories were written, but which are no longer acceptable. Such language and chartacterizations do not reflect the opinions of the compiler or web site owner.

1846: The Baptist mission house was purchased. Source: St. Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha, by Sue Steiner and Robin Liston, 2nd ed. (Chalfon St Peter, Bucks: Bradt Travel Guide, 2007), pg. 34.

1846-01-07: Capture of brig, unknown, 151 tons, with 549 slaves on board; fully equipped for slave trade; captured by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet; fourteenth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 13 Jan. 1846, under the charge of Lieut. Oakeley, of the Cygnet; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 29 Jan. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the material and cargo sold by public auction; of the 549 slaves found on board, 527 were delivered to the Collector of Customs at St. Helena, 22 having previously died, and 466 were alive at the time of adjudication.
(Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 365)

1846-01-15: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, Lobo, 126 tons, Joāo Ferreira Nunes, master, crew of 16; owner, Francisco Roderigues da Silva; equipped for slave trade; captured by Sidney Henry Usher, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Wasp; eighth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 9 Feb. 1846, under the charge of Mr. Octavius Clementson, master's assistant of the Wasp; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 5 Mar. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold, materials and cargo sold for £97 13s.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 357, 365, 383)

1846-01-15: Capture of Brazilian schooner, name unknown, — tons; captured by the Alert; equipped for slave trade; seventh capture; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court, St. Helena. (Slave 1847, pg. 41)

1846-01-21: Capture of Emprehendedora, 59-1/2 tons, Francisco Rodrigues da Silva, master and owner, crew of 12; bound from Rio de Janeiro to Cape de Verd [sic] by way of the ports of Africa; equipped for slave trade; alleged by the libel to have been captured by Charles John Bosanquet, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Alert, on the west coast of Africa; arrived at St. Helena under the charge of Mr. De Kantzow, midshipman, Alert; adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 11 May 1846: decreed to be restored with costs, the libel not being proved; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pg. 371)

1846-01-24: There are at present no fewer than fifteen condemned slavers in this port. Two out of the above were full of slaves, prizes to H.M.S. Cygnet (Captain Layton). The first, arriving on 25th December, was a Brazilian schooner of about 100 tons, captured off Cape Palmerinho, having on board 547 slaves. The other arriving on the 11th, a brig, name and nation unknown, had 542 slaves on board, and was captured by the Cygnet on her return from St. Helena to the coast in lat. 11' 38" S., long. 1' 37" E.——St. Helena Gazette, 24 Jan. 1846 (Jackson, pg. 271)

1846-02-06:
From the London Gazette.
Friday, Feb. 6. War Office.
  Ceylon Rifle Regiment.——Lieut. Colonel H. Simmonds, from the St. Helena Regiment, to be Lieutenant Colonel, vice A. Montresor, who retires upon half-pay Unattached.
  St. Helena Regiment.——Lieut. Col. John Ross, from half-pay unattached, to be Lieutenant Colonel, vice Simmonds, appointed to the Ceylon Rifle Regiment. (BNA: 
London Standard, 7 Feb. 1846; and, Allen’s Indian Mail, Vol. IV, pg. 91)

1846-02-12:
Military.
  St. Helena Regiment.——Lieutenant Staniforth [sic] has just arrived in England on leave of absence.
(BNA: London Daily News, 12 Feb. 1846)

1846-02-14:
Newport, Saturday, Feb. 14.
  The Garrison.——A draft of the St. Helena Regiment left here on Thursday, for St. Helena.
(BNA: Hampshire Advertiser, 14 Feb. 1846)

rollers at st helena

St. Helena: The Historic Island,
by E.L. Jackson
(New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1905), pg. 17.

1846-02-16: Huge waves, or “rollers”, hit the island causing 13 ships anchored off Jamestown bay to be wrecked. (Jackson, pg. 79)

John Charles Mellis wrote the following account of this occurrence:

   "The rise and fall of tide is almost imperceptible, the maximum being, at times of new and full moon, only 2 ft. 10 in., and the establishment 2h. 9m. Perhaps the most remarkable of any phenomena connected with the Island is that known as The Rollers, or huge rolling waves, which have from time to time caused much loss of life and property, and which are as well known at Ascension as at St. Helena. The Rollers usually set in during the early part of the year; and the greatest and most destructive on record occurred in the month of February, 1846. At St. Helena, on the 16th of that month, there was nothing unusual to attract the attention of the quiet inhabitants of the peaceful settlement of Jamestown, unless it was the marked stillness of the calm that prevailed, the S.E. Trade wind having entirely lulled for about ten days, leaving an oppressive sultry atmosphere. The barometer had risen rapidly, and stood high, and the atmosphere was dense and heavy, with thick clouds obscuring the sky. In the evening, towards sunset, a few waves commenced to break upon the beach in front of the town, but there was nothing very striking in this common occurrence. Through the night, however, the waves increased, and at daybreak on the following morning the surface of the sea opposite the town had assumed the appearance of a sheet of foam, broken only by tremendous waves, which came like so many rolling mountains chasing one another, carrying everything before them, and breaking near the shore. All this disturbance was within half a mile from the coast; the ships lying at anchor beyond that distance not being affected, while those within, some thirteen in number, including eleven captured slave ships, were, in the short space of seven hours, dashed into atoms. One of them, the Descobrador, a Brazilian brig of 127 tons burden, was with her anchors and cables literally lifted up, carried broadside on to the English schooner Cornelia, and both together driven on to the shore. So little notice had been given that there was not even time to remove the shipkeepers who were on board of the slave ships. Some of them escaped to other ships in the roadstead; but as the Descobrador struck the beach broadside on, and sea after sea broke over her, the keeper, with his wife and a Lascar servant, were seen holding on by the rails of the vessel, appealing for help. While they remained in this perilous position, Mr. Chatfield, of H.M.S. Flying Fish, attempted to gain the vessel with a rope, but was unable through the violence of the waves; but, after an unsuccessful attempt to fire a rocket and line across the wreck, an American sailor, named Roach, had the satisfaction of reaching it. With a rope he lashed himself and the woman together, and jumping into the waves both were drawn to the shore. The keeper and the Lascar jumped overboard, and in a momentary lull were both also saved. Not ten minutes did the whole of this occupy, and scarcely was the work of destruction over, when another slaver was driven from her anchors on to the shore; and then another, a splendid yacht-built schooner, the Aquilla, followed immediately, both being in the space of one moment shivered into a mass of splinters against the rocks. Ere mid-day arrived the rollers increased in size all along the leeward coast, the water on the southern side of the Island remaining quite undisturbed, and ship after ship shared a similar fate. Two Brazilian schooners, the Enfranzia and the Esperanza, were engulfed by huge waves sweeping over them; one of them sunk where she was in an instant, while the other drifted out to sea a total wreck. But at one o'clock the biggest wave of all, a tremendous rolling mountain of water, came in towards the shore, with every appearance of sweeping everything, even the Island itself, away. So huge was it that all behind it, almost even the very light of the sun, was shut out from the terrified spectators. The roaring of these waves could be heard for several miles inland; and one gentleman, long resident there, told me that never before in his life had he been so frightened as he was when he saw them. In one of these enormous waves the English brig Rocket, of 230 tons, was lifted with her hull in a vertical position, her bows up, and her stern down, and as the wave broke not a single trace of her was seen. The scene of devastation was not at sea alone, for the same wave came rolling along the wharf, tearing down large iron water-tanks and strongly-built iron cranes, one of which it carried fifty yards or more into the coal-yard, and dashing with the utmost fury against the cliff carried away a balcony, which but half-an-hour before had been vacated by thirty or forty spectators. The whole scene is described as one of wild and awful grandeur; the sea and the shore being everywhere covered with broken boats, spars, casks, timber, all floating in one huge boiling surge. The glacis and the lines of Jamestown were impassable through wreck of every description scattered about: coal-yards, wharf, and sea walls, batteries and cannon, were swept down. At six o'clock in the evening no abatement occurred, and two other ships, the Quatro de Marco, which hitherto, held, by four anchors, had withstood the fury of the sea, and the Julia, a Brazilian, were dashed to pieces on the west rocks. The destruction of these ships was as instantaneous as a child would crush a fragile toy. The former vessel was seen with masts standing, only a moment before she floated a thousand pieces in the surge. The latter was rolled over just as if the waves were playing at football or cricket with her, and eventually lodged high up on the west rocks against the cliffs of Ladder Hill. At Rupert's Valley the sea rolled inland a distance of 216 feet. Eleven of the destroyed ships were condemned slavers, and of no great value; therefore the estimated damage done did not exceed 10,000l. This oceanic phenomenon occurs with greater force and more frequency at the Island of Ascension, in lat. 7° 58-1/2' S., and long. 14° 23-1/2' W., where communication between ships and the shore is completely stopped for a week or more at a time. Through the kindness of Captain Wilmshurst, R.N., I was able during the year commencing September, 1867, to make a comparison of the time and force of the rollers at each Island. It appears that they set in at Ascension, upon the average, one to seven days sooner than they do at St. Helena, and that their course is south or south-easterly from the Equator, breaking against the northern shores only of both Islands. Although they happen at any period of the year, they appear chiefly in the months of December to March, usually occurring with greatest force in February."
(Mellis, pp. 390-2)

1846-02-17: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, Paquete de Rio, 46-1/2 tons, crew of 10 including Boaventura Consalvez Roque, master; owner, Custodia de Sousa Machado; equipped for slave trade; captured by Sidney Henry Usher, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Wasp, in company of H.M.'s sloop Star, Robert J.W. Dunlop, Esq., commander; arrived at St. Helena, 18 Mar. 1846, under the charge of Mr. Burgess, midshipman, Star; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 9 April 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the materials and cargo sold by public auction for the sum of £22 5s. 5d.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 360-1, 377, 383)

1846-02-27: The Lady Sale.——At the Thames Police-court, yesterday, Captain Tyrrell, master of the brig Lady Sale, attended, together with his officers and the crew of that vessel, before Mr. Ballantine. The object of their attendance was to obtain some investigation into the circumstances under which the Lady Sale had been seized and condemned as a slave trader by the Portuguese authorities. The captain and men had, according to their representations, been detained six weeks by the Portuguese, and then transmitted to St. Helena. From thence they had been sent home in custody of an officer of the navy, who left them on arriving at Deal, and they had neither seen him since nor heard whether any steps were taken by the government to investigate the affair. Mr. Ballantine stated that he had no jurisdiction in the matter; and the captain departed after declaring his readiness to appear at any time and answer any charge that might be brought relative to the Lady Sale. (BNA: Morning Chronicle, 28 Feb. 1846)

1846-03-11: Capture of brigantine, name and nation unknown, 108 tons; equipped for slave trade; seized by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet; vessel had been abandoned by the crew; arrived at St. Helena, 23 Mar. 1846, under the charge of Mr. Carrington, midshipman, Cygnet; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 13 April 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the materials and cargo sold by public auction; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 83, 377)

1846-03-12: Capture of brigantine, Clara, nation unknown, 125-1/2 tons; equipped for slave trade; seized by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet; had been abandoned by the crew; arrived at St. Helena, 28 Mar. 1846, under the charge of Mr. Bere, naval cadet, Cygnet; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 20 April 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the materials and cargo sold by public auction; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 83, 366, 377)

1846-04-03:
From the London Gazette, April 3.
War-office.
  To be Lieutenants without purchase ... Lieutenant John Stainforth, from the St Helena Regiment; ...
(BNA: 
Morning Post, 4 April 1846)

1846-04-03: Capture of brigantine, name and nation unknown, 158-1/2 tons, abandoned by her crew; equipped for slave trade; seized by George Mansel, Esq., captain, H.M.'s ship Actæon, off Cabenda; arrived at St. Helena, 20 April 1846, under the charge of William Anthony Munton, Esq., second lieutenant, Actæon; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 14 May 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the materials and cargo sold by public auction; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 83, 369, 377)

1846-04-05: Capture of schooner, Gaio, 52 tons, Gaspar da Silva Rodrigues, master, crew of 15 by affidavit, 12 by crew list; owner, Cipriano Theodoro Pereira de Mello; equipped for slave trade; captured by Sidney Henry Ussher, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Wasp; arrived at St. Helena, 18 April 1846, under the charge of Mr. John Cave, midshipman, Wasp; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 14 May 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the materials and cargo were sold by public auction for the sum  of £48 14s. 10d.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 368, 377, 383)

   "April 18.—Arrived the Brazilian schooner Gaio, prize to H.M. brig Wasp, on the 5th, in lat. 7' 18" S., and long. 2' 10" E. The prize was observed making in towards main land when the gig and whale boat of the Wasp, commanded by Lieut. Hocking and Mr. Cave, midshipman, were sent in chase. The boats were fired upon as they approached the steamer, and three men wounded. Upon this the boats were ordered by Lieut. Hocking to return the fire, which they did with effect; and as soon as their ammunition was expended, boarded and carried the prize, after some resistance, in which the chief mate of the prize was killed. The master was found severely wounded, the iron gun of the vessel having burst in its last discharge at the boats, and carried away one of his legs; he was also wounded through the body, probably through the firing from the boats, and died about two hours after his capture. Three of the crew were brought up in the prize, as prisoners for trial, the remaining ten removed on board H.M.S. Wasp, which vessel is expected shortly to arrive."
(Jackson, pg. 271, probably citing from the St. Helena Gazette.)

1846-04-07: Capture of brig, name and nation unknown, crew about 40, 108 foreign tons, 110 ft long, 35 ft broad, 17 ft 5 in deep; seized by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet; brig had been abandoned by the crew, and on fire, fore and aft, by which the fire was ultimately destroyed; equipped for slave trade; a dolphin striker and a set of shackles were saved from the brig and brought to St. Helena; adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 7 Sept. 1846: vessel pronounced to have been liable to forfeiture and condemnation at the time of seizure, with the dolphin striker and shackles condemned and ordered to be sold; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 384, 388)

1846-04-10: Capture of Brazilian brig, Gabriel, 280 tons, Manoel Jozé Teixeira, master and owner, crew of 21; equipped for slave trade; seized by Thomas Francis Birch, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Waterwitch; arrived at St. Helena, 23 April 1846, under the charge of William Rowlatt, Esq., Lieutenant, Waterwitch; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 14 May 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the materials and cargo were sold by public auction for £316 17s. 8d.; — slaves captured.
(Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 83, 367, 377, 383)

1846-04-14:
From the London Gazette of Tuesday, April 14.
War-Office.
  St. Helena Regiment——Ensign John Smith Cannon to be lieutenant, without purchase, vice Stainforth, appointed to the 24th Foot; John Denham Saunder, Gent., to be ensign, vice Cannon.
(BNA: London Daily News, 15 April 1846)

1846-04-15: Capture of Felucca, unknown; 80 ft long, 22-1/2 ft broad, 3 ft 9 in deep; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364)

1846-04-20: Capture of Galgo, 294 tons, Joaquim Antonio Pereira, master, crew of 17 by crew list, 36 found on board; owner, Jozé Marianno Carneiro; armed with two iron guns on carriages and two iron swivels; equipped for slave trade; captured by the boats of H.M.'s sloop Wasp, Sidney Henry Ussher, Esq., commander, after a severe conflict, in which 13 Brazilians including the master were killed, and 7 British seamen wounded; arrived at St. Helena, 2 May 1846, under the charge of David Elliot, lieutenant, Wasp; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 28 May 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; materials and cargo sold for £297 4s. 7d.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 372, 377, 383)

  "May 1.—Capture of a slaver. Arrived the Galgo, a smart Brazilian brig of 320 tons, armed with three guns, captured by three boats of H.M.S. Wasp, under the command of Lieut. Hocking, on the 20th April, in lat. 7' 15" S. and long. 12' 28" E. The crew of the prize, thirty-six in number, kept up a constant fire on the boats for an hour and a half, and after the boarding party got on deck continued it from the tops of the vessel until shot down by the captors. Of the Wasp three men were slightly wounded and two dangerously; on the part of the crew of the slaver thirteen were killed, viz. Captain Joaquin Antonio Perreira, the mate, and eleven men. With the Gaio the Wasp had three wounded, and the fearful massacre of her prize crew on board the Felicidade has left the crew of the Wasp in an exasperated state, while the escape of the murderers of their companions from justice has no doubt added fuel to the flames."
(Jackson, pg. 272, probably citing from the St. Helena Gazette.)

1846-05-01: Capture of Caxias, 175 tons, Antonio Francisco da Costa, master, crew of 19; equipped for slave trade; seized by Thomas Francis Birch, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Waterwitch; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 11 June 1846: ordered, that the cargo should be sold, and the vessel should be broken up and the materials thereof sold in separate parts; materials and cargo were sold for £172 1s. 1d.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 83, 373, 383)

1846-05-03: Death of Colonel Hamelin Trelawney, Governor of St. Helena, of an attack of paralysis, aged sixty-four years; succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel George Brodie Fraser, R.A., as acting Governor. (Jackson, pp. 79, 295; Mellis, pg. 32; Trove: South Australian Register, 30 Sept. 1846)

1846-05-08: Capture of brigantine, name and nation unknown, 35 foreign tons, 55 ft 3 in long, 14 ft broad, 7 ft deep, keel 38 ft; equipped for, and engaged in, slave trade; seized by Thomas Francis Birch, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Waterwitch, off Loango Bay, and destroyed by fire by order of Captain Birch, in consequence of being rotten and unseaworthy; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 6 July 1846: pronounced liable to condemnation at time of seizure; a top-gallant yard belonging to the vessel and brought to St. Helena was condemned and sold; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 83, 375-6, 388)

1846-05-15: The following is taken from a letter which appears in The Dublin Evening Post, communicated from the Cape, and dated 15th May, describing the Kafir war:——"When Mr. Francis Porter (an Irish gentleman settled here) heard of the war being inevitable, he made up his mind to volunteer, and immediately set to work to get together a set of self-mounted gentlemen. A number of young men came forward——but not enough to form a separate force——and they agreed to join the Cape District Burghers, which started on Tuesday week. But, on Saturday, the Captain of the Cape Town Volunteer Infantry placed the command at Mr. Porter's disposal, and he finally arranged that Captain Keating, of the St. Helena Regiment, should take the command, Mr. Porter acting as First Lieutenant; and the corps left Table Bay, for Port Elizabeth, on Monday last." Mr. F. Porter is youngest son of the late Rev. W. Porter, of Newtownlemavady. (BNA: Northern Whig, 18 July 1846)

1846-05-19: Capture of brig, name and nation unknown, 126 tons; equipped for slave trade; seized by John Hay, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Prometheus, off the River Congo; arrived at St. Helena, 29 June 1846, under the charge of William Innes Bridges, midshipman, Prometheus; vessel was condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 23 July 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel demolished, and the materials & cargo sold by public auction; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; — slaves captured.
(Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 83, 377, 388)

1846-06-11: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, Emprehendedora, 59 tons, Francisco Rodrigues da Silva, master and owner; seized whilst lying at anchor off St. Helena by Thomas Francis Birch, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Waterwitch; adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 6 Aug. 1846: vessel decreed to be restored with costs and damages to the seizor, Thomas Francis Birch; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 379-80) See also the timeline entry under 1846-08-06.

   "Queen v. Brazilian brigantine Emprehendedora.
   "This vessel, which was formerly seized by Capt. Bosanquet of H.M.S. 
Alert, and restored by decree of the Vice-Admiralty Court of this Colony, on the 11th May last, the particulars of which case appeared in the St. Helena Gazette of May 16, was again seized while at anchor in these roads on the 11th June by Capt. Birch of H.M.S. Waterwitch for being equipped for the slave trade, and put into Court. The case was adjudicated on Thursday.
   "Mr. Gideon moved on the affidavit for condemnation, upon the ground that the usual equipments for carrying on the slave trade were found on board at the time of seizure.
   "Mr. Fowler for the claimant, Francisco Roderigues de Silva, opposed the motion for the condemnation, on the following grounds:   "1st. That there was no proof of the seizure or detention of the vessel by Capt. Birch or by any person on his behalf.
   "2nd. That the vessel was not at the time of the search and detention equipped for the slave trade, but was in the same state as when restored by decree of the Vice-Admiralty Court and regularly entered at the Custom House.
   "3rd. That Capt. Birch had no especial authority for seizing Brazilian vessels engaged in the slave trade excepting on the high seas.
   "4th. That the 
Emprehenededora was lying at anchor in the roads at St. Helena within range of the batteries and therefore the seizure was in violation of the convention. The judge was of opinion, that whatever might have been the intention of the original voyages of the Emprehendedora with regard to the slave trade, that intention had been evidently abandoned upon the release of the vessel from the seizure by H.M.S. Alert. The vessel had been regularly entered at the Custom House and permission had been applied for and obtained to land the cargo and slave equipments, before the seizure by Capt. Birch, which sufficiently proved that there was no intention to carry on the African slave trade. His Honour therefore decreed that the vessel be restored with costs." (Jackson, pp. 282-3, probably citing from the St. Helena Gazette.)

1846-06-24: "The Court of Commissioners was established by writ of the Privy Council for the trial of offences on the high seas." (Jackson, pg. 78)

1846-06-24: Trial in the Vice-Admiralty Court, St. Helena, of the crews of the Brazilian slave-vessels Gaio and Galgo, for resisting the boats of H.M.S. Wasp, and wounding several men on the occasion of their seizure. The Court was attended by: His Honour, Mr. Wilde, Esq., Chief Justice of the Colony; James Everard Home, Baronet, Captain, Royal Navy, commanding H.M.S. Star; the Hon. Major Henry E. O'Dell, St. Helena Regiment, member of the Legislative Council; George Summer Hand, Esq., Commander, H.M.S. Espoir; and the following Grand Jury: William Carrol, Esq., foreman; Geo. W. Alexander, Thomas Alesworth, Thomas Charlett, George Chadwick, Thomas Cole, John de Fountaine, W.K. Doveton, W.O. Kennedy, Samuel Hopewell, William Mason, Isaac Moss, Matthew O'Connor, Thomas Rote, John Scott, John K. Torbett, and John Wright. The prisoners pleaded not guilty. Mr. T.E. Thompson appeared for the prisoners. Witnesses included Mr. John Halliday Cave, midshipman, H.M.S. Wasp; Edward Campbell, one of the crew of the gig when the Gaio was taken; Austin Elson, one of the crew of the Wasp's whale-boat when the Gaio was taken; and, William Norman, wounded by a musket ball on the back of his head. No witnesses were produced on the part of the prisoners. "The Chief Justice having summed up, the jury retired and after an hour's deliberation returned a verdict of guilty against the whole of the prisoners." (Jackson, pp. 272-7, probably citing from the St. Helena Gazette.)

1846-06-25: Trial in the Vice-Admiralty Court, St. Helena, of the following twenty-two prisoners: Joze Pereira Santos, Antonio Joze Peirerira [sic], Francisco Marquis Couto, Joaquin Coreia Soaces, Hanwel, Ferreira, Dion isio Marinho, Francisco Mondes, Joze Francisco d'Almeida, Celestieno Emendes, Manvel Joze dos Santos, Joze Baptista Goncalves, Joze Francisco, Raphall Sanxes, Antonio des Santos, Joze Roura, Joas de Las Reis, Antonio Joze da Silva, Hilario Porie Bento Belles, Joas Kosmay, and Antonio dos Santos—on the charge of "piratically and feloniously shooting on the high seas at one George Horwood, a seaman of H.M.S. Wasp, with intent to kill and murder him." Mr. Fowler appeared for the prisoners. Mr. P.C. Gurnet was sworn as interpreter. The prisoners pleaded not guilty. The jury was composed of: Fernandez Rosse, George Baxter, Robert Ramage, Richard Sparkes, Young, [sic] James Scott, Stephen Young, Edward Greenland, Matthew Torbett, John Bargo, William Seale, Charles Hogg, and Stephen Stroud. Mr. Firman, the Queen's Advocate, stated the case for the prosecution. After the Chief Justice summed up, the Jury brought in a verdict of 'Not Guilty.'
    The prisoners from the Gaio, who were tried on Wednesday and found guilty, were brought up for judgment, pleaded that they were Brazilian subjects. Mr. Thompson spoke for the prisoners. As "the Court was satisfied that they were really Brazilian subjects, a sentence of a nominal punishment only would be passed upon them of twenty-four hours imprisonment." (Jackson, 277-81, probably citing from the St. Helena Gazette.)

1846: In the summer of 1846, the Rev. Mr. Jamieson, a missionary of the Presbyterian Board, stopped at St. Helena, on his way from India. He found the Rev. J. M'Gregor Bertram "suffering from a severe affection of the throat, which prevented his preaching for some considerable time." Rev. Mr. Bertram was under the medical care of John Stewart, M.D.
(Bertram 1852, pg. 172)

1846-07-06: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, Segunda Conceiçāo de Maria, 52 tons, Francisco Camillo da Silva, master, crew of 10; equipped for slave trade; detained by John William Douglas Brisbane, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Larne; arrived at St. Helena, 24 July 1846, under the charge of John William Whyte, lieutenant, Larne; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 20 Aug. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold, decree of demolition and sale not returned as of the 30th June 1846; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 382, 383)

1846-07-06: Capture of schooner,* unknown; 75-3/4 ft long, 19 ft 2 in broad, 13 ft 1 in deep; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365) * Described otherwise as a Brazilian brig, 52 tons, Francisco Damilla da Silva, master, crew of 10; owner, Manoel Jozé da Silva, owner; seized by John W.D. Brisbane, Esq., H.M. sloop Larne; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 20 Aug. 1846, for being equipped for, and engaged in, the slave trade, and ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was demolished, and the materials and cargo sold by public auction. (Slave 1847, pg. 388)

1846-07-08: Capture of Brazilian brig, Relampago, 147 tons, with 545 slaves on board; Antonio Mauricio de Mendonea, master, crew of 17; owner, Manoel dos Santos; fully equipped for slave trade; seized by Joseph West, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Hecate; arrived at St. Helena, 24 July 1846, under the charge of James Hancock, Lieutenant, Hecate; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 13 Aug. 1846: prosecution conducted by Mr. Baker, the Queen's Proctor, vessel was ordered to be broken up and sold, vessel was demolished and the cargo and materials sold by public auction, decree of demolition and sale not returned as of the 30th June 1846; of the 545 Africans found on board, 504 were delivered to the collector of customs at St. Helena on the 24th July, 41 having died during the passage, and 468 were alive at the time of adjudication. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 380-1, 383, 388; Jackson, pg. 283)

1846-07-13: Letter from the Governor of St. Helena to the Right Hon. W.E. Gladstone:

    St. Helena, 13 July 1846.
    Sir,
    Referring to my predecessor's despatch, dated the 20th of February last, reporting the damage done to the wharf at St. Helena, in consequence of the unusually heavy rollers which had visited the island, I have now the honour to forward the report from the Board of Officers appointed to examine into the extent of damage done to the wharf, sea walls, &c., together with an estimate for the repairs, amounting to the sum of £3,946 10s. 6d.; also the plans and a demand of stores which will be required from England, to enable the engineer to perform the work provided for in the estimate.
    I likewise beg to forward four drawings which have been kindly furnished by Lieutenant Stack, of the St. Helena Regiment, taken by that officer at the time of the rollers, and showing the state of the wharf both before and after.  
    Independently of the estimate now forwarded, it was found necessary at the time to incur an expense of £238 16s. 1/4d. to enable the communication to be kept up between the town and the shipping.
    I have, &c.
    (signed) Geo. W. Fraser, Lieut.-Colonel, Governor.
The Right Hon. W.E. Gladstone, &c. &c. &c.

   Source: Great Britain. House of Commons. Accounts and Papers: Thirty Volumes. (2.) Estimates. Session 1 Feb.–1 Aug. 1849. Vol. XXXI, pg. 15.

1846-07-18: Lieut.-Colonel J. Ross was appointed acting Governor. (Jackson, pg. 295)

1846-07-28:* Capture of brigantine, name and nation unknown, 41 tons; equipped for slave trade; detained by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet; arrived at St. Helena, 12 Aug. 1846, under the charge of Henry Oakeley, lieutenant, Cygnet; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 3 Sept. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold, vessel was demolished, and the cargo and materials sold by public auction; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 383-4, 388)
* The 1847 publication cites the date as 1846-05-28 (pg. 383).

1846-08-15: Capture of Brazilian schooner, Maria, 69 tons, Oridio dos Santos, master, crew of 11; owner, Hygino Pires Gomes; seized by Richard Ashmore Powell, Esq., acting commander, H.M.'s sloop Kingfisher, off Juan Bay; arrived at St. Helena, 1 Sept. 1846, under the charge of John George Mudge Millet, master's assistant, Kingfisher; adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 28 Sept. 1846: vessel condemned for being equipped for, and engaged in, the slave trade, and ordered to be broken up and sold, decree of demolition and sale not returned as of 30 Sept. 1846; — slaves captured.
(Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pp. 387-8; Jackson, pg. 283)

1846-09-06: Capture of Vallerozo, 136 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365)

   Compare with: Capture of brig, name and nation unknown but with Brazilian ensign on board, 136 tons; equipped for slave trade; captured 8 Sept. 1846, by John Hay Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Prometheus; arrived at St. Helena, 25 Sept. 1846, under the charge of H.B. Akaster, master's assistant, Prometheus; adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 15 Oct. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold.
(Slave 1847, pg. 391)

1846-09-08: Capture of brig, unknown, 69 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365)

1846-09-08: Capture of brig, Dios Ismaas, by H.B. Akaster, Esq., H.M.S. Prometheus, off Ambriz. (Jackson, pg. 283)

1846-09-13:* Capture of brig, name and nation unknown, 194 tons, with 546 slaves on board; seized by Thomas Francis Birch, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Waterwitch, "after a spirited chase;" arrived at St. Helena, 19 Sept. 1846, under the charge of William Rowlatt, Esq., lieutenant, Waterwitch; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 5 Oct. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; of the 546 Africans found on board, 539 were delivered to the Collector of Customs at St. Helena, 7 having died during the passage, and 518 alive at the time of adjudication. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pg. 390; Jackson, pg. 283).
* 1847 publication cites the date, 30 September 1846.

1846-09-13: Capture of Brazilian schooner, Amelia, 149 tons, Leonardo Jozé de Sousa Pinto, master, crew of 13; equipped for slave trade; detained by Horatio Beauman Young, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Hydra; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 26 Oct. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pg. 392)

1846-09-13: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, Augusta, 107 foreign tons, 80 ft long, 22 ft broad; Jozé Antonio d'Alvargengo, master, crew of 12; detained off Pointe Matoote, on the west coast of Africa, by Frederick William Horton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Kingfisher, and left in a sinking state, from the effects of the shot fired from the Kingfisher during the chase; adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 26 Oct. 1846: pronounced to have been liable to forfeiture and condemnation at the time of seizure, and two coppers, a Brazilian ensign, a chronometer, and stern davit, saved from the vessel and brought to St. Helena were condemned and ordered to be sold; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pg. 394)

1846-09-17: Capture of brigantine, Rolla, 111 tons, Joze Gregoria Pereira, master; detained by H.M.S. Styx, in charge of Lieut. C. Rainer;* adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena: prosecution conducted by Mr. Solomon, Proctor for the captor, and defence by Mr. Fowler: "The proceedings were by plea and proof, and the voluminous nature of those proceedings, consisting of libel, answers, examinations of witnesses, survey translations of documents, etc., had necessarily protracted the case until now," 18 Feb. 1847: "The judge decreed the vessel to be condemned under the provisions of the 8th and 9th Victoria, cap. 22. Mr. Fowler intimated the probability of the decision being appealed against;" — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Jackson, pp. 283-5)
* Jackson cited H. Chads, Esq., commander, H.M.S. Styx.

1846-09-24: Capture of Brazilian brig, Tentaçāo, 163 tons, Joāo Jozé Lopes, master, crew of 16; equipped for slave trade; detained by Thomas Lewis Gooch, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Sealark; arrived at St. Helena, 7 Oct. 1846, under the charge of Offley Malcolm Crewe Read, lieutenant, Sealark; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 26 Oct. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Slave 1847, pg. 393)

1846-09-30: Capture of Isabel, 261 tons; detained by H.M.S. Hydra, off Palma, in charge of Lieut. Charleton, R.N.; vessel was condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Jackson, pg. 283)

1846-10-08: Capture of schooner, Mareval Allvoise, by H.M.S. Brilliant, in charge of Lieut. Corkroff. (Jackson, pg. 283)

1846-10-09: Capture of brigantine, unknown, 59 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured.
(Lords 1849, pg. 365)

1846-10-14: Capture of brigantine, Victoria, 185 tons; prize to H.M.S. Kingfisher, Mr. A. Dewar in charge; vesssel was condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Jackson, pg. 284)

1846-10-17: Capture of brig, unknown, 195 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365)

1846-10-17: Capture of brig, Genie; detained by H.M.S. Kingfisher, in charge of J. Millet, Esq., R.N., off River Fernanyas. (Jackson, pg. 284)

1846-10-21: Capture of brigantine, Bonito Porto, 125 tons; detained by Sealark, in charge of Mr. Fenwick; vessel was condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Jackson, pg. 284)

1846-10-22: Capture of brigantine, Aguia or Angle, 148 tons; prize to H.M.S.  Sealark, Mr. S. Waith, R.N., in charge; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365; Jackson, pg. 284)

1846-10-23: Capture of Electra, 123 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365)

1846-11-09:
The Brevet.
  From the Supplement to Last Night's Gazette.
  War Office, Nov. 9.
  Brevet.——Her Majesty has been pleased to appoint the following officers to take rank by Brevet as under-mentioned; the commissions to be dated 9th November, 1846:— ... [included in a list of several hundred names:] Lieutenant Colonel: John Ross, of the St. Helena Regiment. Captain: James Piggott, of the St. Helena Regiment. ... " (BNA: London Standard, 11 Nov. 1846)

1846-11-15: The 22nd November edition of the St. Helena Gazette contained the following article about the arrival of the acting Governor, Major-General Sir Patrick Ross, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.:

  His Excellency Major-General Sir Patrick Ross, G.C.M.G., and K.C.B., arrived on Sunday morning last at ten o'clock, in the ship Boyne from the Cape of Good Hope. He landed at one o'clock p.m. under a salute of seventeen guns from Ladder Hill. Lieut.-Colonel Ross, the senior officer in command of troops, and administering the Government for the time being, with his Aide-de-Camp and Town Major went on board the Boyne to wait on his Excellency. On his Excellency landing he was received by a guard of honour consisting of 100 rank and file of the St. Helena regiment, under the command of Capt. Keating, which was drawn up on the landing place. His Excellency with his family, after a short stay at the Castle, went direct to Plantation House, the official residence of the Governor. The following day he was sworn in, and his commission read in the town Square adjoining the Castle, the St. Helena Regiment under the command of Capt. Woollard forming three sides of a square, the fourth composed of civil and military officers of the colony (not under arms), and a numerous body of the inhabitants of the island; after which his Excellency retired to the reception rooms at the Castle, where he received the civil authorities, the military, and such of the respectable inhabitants as presented themselves. Sir Patrick took great interest in island affairs, and agriculture was encouraged by the holding of agricultural and horticultural exhibitions. One of the reports says:——
  "Prize for labourers' neat cottages.——We do not think any of the four candidates reach the standard which would justify a recommendation to the high reward offered.
  "Mr. Chas. Smith's cottage would come nearest the mark if it belonged to a labouring man. Richards deserves much praise for making a profitable garden——well worth seeing among the heaps of rocks.
 "Peggy Bagley's cottage indicates in the interior habits of neatness fitly characterizing a good old domestic servant.
  "On the whole, Benjamin of Fisher's Valley seems to us to direct his labour in a manner best calculated to combine eventually the requisites of a neat cottage, and, without recommending the Society's handsome reward, we think a gratuity of £1 would be well deserved, with a view to stimulate his further exertions.
  "Signed, Richard Kempthorne,
  "Thos. C. Luxmore."

(Jackson, pp. 79-80) Note: Jackson cited 1846-11-23 as the date from which the appointment commenced (pg. 295).

1846-11-21: Capture of brig, unknown, 185 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 365)

1846-11-21: Capture of brig, Adelaide; detained by H.M. sloop Bittern off River Congo, in charge of Lieut. Powell, R.N. (Jackson, pg. 284)

1846: Number of British merchant vessels touching at St. Helena during the year, 589. The average passage from Calcutta to St. Helena was 83 days. (Merchants 1848, pp. 645-6)

Previous: Timeline for the year 1845.
Next: Timeline for the year 1847.

This page was first published on the 7th July 2015; subsequently edited, 14th July 2015.

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"The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there."—Lesley Poles Hartley (1895–1972), The Go-Between (1953).

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