St. Helena timeline: 1845

Sources are provided [within square brackets] at the end of each timeline entry, except for those sources which repeat. Recurring sources are (indicated by round parentheses), with the source citation abbreviated as shown in the following key:

  • BNA: The British Newspaper Archive, britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed 2015-05-16, 2015-06-27ff, by subscription); transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick.
  • Bertram 1852: St. Helena and the Cape of Good Hope: or, Incidents in the Missionary Life of the Rev. James M'Gregor Bertram, of St. Helena, by Edwin F. Hatfield (New York: Edward H. Fletcher, 1852).
  • Colonies 1845: Great Britain. The Reports made for the Year 1845 to the Secretary of State having the Department of the Colonies: in continuation of the Reports annually made by the Governors of the British Colonies, with a view to exhibit generally The Past and Present State of Her Majesty's Colonial Possessions, transmitted with the Blue Books for the Year 1845, Vol. IV (London: W. Clowes and Sons, July 1846).
  • Jackson: St. Helena: The Historic Island, by E.L. Jackson (New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1905).
  • Lords 1849: Great Britain. House of Lords. Report of the Select Committee of the House of Lords, appointed to consider the best Means which Great Britain can adopt for the Final Extinction of the African Slave Trade, Session 1849, ordered by the House of Commons to be Printed, 15 February 1850.
  • Mellis: St. Helena: A Physical, Historical, and Topographical Description of the Island, by John Charles Mellis (London: L. Reeve & Co., 1875).
  • Old Saints: The St. Helena Regiment, ‘The Old Saints, on the Saint Helena Island Info web site, www.sainthelenaisland.info/regiment.htm (accessed 2015-05-16).
  • SHF: The St. Helena Foundation, Box 103, SE-37011, Backaryd, Sweden; online at www.sthelena.se, John Ekwall, webmaster (accessed 2015-05-16, 2015-07-05)
  • SHII: Saint Helena Island Info (accessed 2015-06-28ff).
  • Slave 1847: Great Britain. Accounts and Papers: Thirty-Seven Volumes. (34.) Slave Trade. Session 19 January – 23 July 1847. Vol. LXVII.
  • Trove: Trove Digitised Newspapers, National Library of Australia, online at www.trove.nla.gov.au, accessed 2015-07-02.

Please note: Some articles contain language and characterizations which may have been in common use at the time the articles or stories were written, but which are no longer acceptable. Such language and chartacterizations do not reflect the opinions of the compiler or web site owner.

1845-01 to 1846-02: Publication of "An Account of the Liberated African Establishment at St. Helena," in seven chapters, by George M'Henry, M.D., C.M.G., in Simmonds's Colonial Magazine and Foreign Miscellany, Vol. V., pp. 172ff, pp. 434ff; Vol. VI, pp. 149ff, pp. 253ff, pp. 428ff; Vol. VII, pp. 16ff, pp. 133ff (London: Simmonds & Ward, Foreign & Colonial Office, 1845-6).

Notes: The seven chapters were numbered I through VIII; however VI appears not to have been published, or an error was made at numbering the sixth chapter as VII. These articles can be downloaded from the link, given above. 

1845-01-04: Capture of brig, supposed Alabes, 417 foreign tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 363)
   "Vice-Admiralty Court, 17th July, 1845.—The slave-brig Alabes (master and nation unknown), taken by H.M. sloop Cygnet (Henry Layton, commander) on 4th January, on West Coast of Africa, after having been run ashore, scuttled, set on fire and abandoned by her crew, was pronounced in the Vice-Admiralty Court of this colony to be subject to condemnation as being equipped for, and engaged in the slave-trade." (Jackson, pg. 265, probably citing a contemporary newspaper.)

1845-01-05: Capture of Carem, 95-1/2 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 363)

1845-03-06: Capture of the a schooner, Virginia, otherwise known as the Felicidade, nation unknown, Francisco Serva, master, crew of 21 including master; 108 ft long, 25 ft broad, 14 ft deep; captured by Robert John Wallace Dunlop, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Star; vessel had been previously detained, under the name of the Felicidade, by Captain Usher, of H.M.'s sloop Wasp, and a prize crew put on board; the captain of the slaver recaptured his vessel by murdering all the crew; whilst on passage to Sierra Leone, was capsized in a white squall and lost, 26 Mar. 1845*—Lieut. Wilson, the prize master, and the crew of the Star escaped by means of a raft constructed of thirteen spars of the vessel; raft was found adrift in the neighbourhood of St. Paul de Loando, about thirty miles from the coast, by H.M.'s brig Cygnet, 5 April 1846;** the master of the slaver and two of the British seamen had persisted in drinking salt water, and were driven mad; a swinging boom belonging to the vessel was brought to St. Helena for adjudication; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena: pronounced liable to have been equipped for and engaged in the slave trade, liable to forfeiture at the time of seizure, the swinging-boom condemned to her Majesty; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors'  expenses; — slaves captured. (Slave 1847, pp. 83, 364; Lords 1849, pg. 363; Jackson, pp. 264-5) * Jackson cites 16 March. ** Slave 1847 cites the date of adjudication as 2 April 1845.

1845-03-21:
From the London Gazette, March 21.
War Office.
  St. Helena Regiment——Lieutenant Robert M'Queen, from half-pay 25th Light Dragoons, to be Lieutenant, vice Wemyss, appointed to the 46th Foot; Ensign Charles Richard Butler, to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice M'Queen, who retires; John Gandy, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Butler.
(BNA: Morning Post, 22 March 1845)

1845-04-01:
From the London Gazettes.
  Downing-street, April 1.——The Queen has been pleased to appoint the Hon. George Warren Edwardes to the Auditor of Accounts to the Government of St. Helena. (Trove: The Courier, 13 Aug. 1845)

1845-05-24: "Desperate Resistance of a Slaver, attended with loss of life.——On the morning of the 24th May, H.M.S. Pantaloon, then cruising in lat. 4' 30" N. and long. 3' 0" E., made a sail, distant about five miles on the weather bow. It being dead calm at the time three boats from the Pantaloon were speedily manned, and sent after the stranger, which was soon ascertained to be a slaver. When the boats got within a mile of the prize——which turned out to be a Polacca brig (name unknown), of 320 tons, with six guns and forty-seven men——she hauled both courses up together, and fired a shot which fell short of our boats. She then commenced firing grape and round shot in good earnest without however doing any mischief. When our men were about a cable's length off the slaver, they gave three hearty English cheers, such as forebode destruction to all who resist, and swept alongside. Two of the boats made for the bows of the brig. Lieut. Lewis de J. Prevost, who commanded, ran his boat under the bumpkin brace. Mr. Crout, the master of the Pantaloon, at the same time gained a footing over the bows and the prize was boarded, not however before three of our gallant tars were wounded, in return for which one of the rascals was shot through the forehead.
   "The third boat, with the boatswain, attempted to board from the main chains, and being much exposed, had the misfortune to lose two men, he with three others being wounded. Our men had no sooner a fair footing on deck, than the crew vanished as if by magic; their fight was over, the cowardly rascals having done enough mischief for one voyage. Mr. Crout, on getting on board, was saluted with four muskets, fired close to his face, by which he was nearly  blinded. Mr. Prevost likewise had some narrow escapes. A breeze having sprung up, they were joined by the Pantaloon, which was saluted with four guns from the prize which had been captured at such a terrible sacrifice."

(Jackson, pp. 267-8, probably citing a contemporary newspaper) 

1845-06: A newspaper was published for the first time last June in St. Helena. (Trove: The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 Feb. 1846)

  St. Helena can now, it seems, boast of an entire newspaper to itself! A weekly journal, entitled the St. Helena Gazette, has recently started into existence on this sterile and isolated rock. It contains government notifications, advertisements, shipping reports, police cases, a price current, and extracts from the English and Cape papers. (Trove: Colonial Times, 26 June 1846).

1845-06-06:
Military Promotions and Exchanges.
  War Office, June 6. St. Helena Regiment——Lieutenant Henry Robert Cowell, from 20th Foot, to be Lieutenant, vice Butler, who exchanges. (BNA: Freeman's Journal, 9 June 1845)

1845-06-14: The crew of the Thomas Lawrie, abandoned off Ichiboe, were picked up and landed at St. Helena by the Crescent of Cork. (Trove: Launceston Examiner, 14 June 1845)

1845-06-21: Appeals for subscriptions were published, to defray the expenses of the Rev. J. M'Gregor Bertram, to preach the gospel to the destitute portion of the population of St. Helena. Representatives of Wesleyan missions, the African Missionary Society, the Scottish church, and the Union church supported this appeal. (Bertram 1852, pp. 118-9)

1845-06-28: Rev. Mr. Bertram sailed for St. Helena, with free passage given by Captain James Adams, of the brig, Velox. (Bertram 1852, pg. 119)

1845-06-28: Issuance of a General Order, by William Jones, Esq., Commodore of the second class, and senior officer commanding her Majesty's ships and vessels employed on the West Coast of Africa. The substance of this order was "that in every case of armed resistance to the lawful visits of her Majesty's boats, the crew of vessels so resisting and taken by assault shall be rigorously dealt with according to the laws of war." The Commanding Officer, in such situations, and in order to obtain witnesses, would be required to "be careful to spare and take alive at least three of the crew of such piratical vessel, if colours be shown," all survivors to be "strictly confined until their cases shall be finally adjudicated." (Jackson, pg. 268)

1845-07-01:
The Army.
St. Helena Regiment.
  Depot, Isle of Wight. A detachment of 40 rank and file is to embark on board the ship 
Cadet, to join the head-quarters.
(BNA: 
London Standard, 1 July 1845)

1845-07-05: Capture of brigantine, supposed Beja Flor, 170 foreign tons; equipped for slave trade; captured by the Albatross; fifth capture of this vessel; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, and destroyed; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pg. 40)

1845-07-06: We learn from our vessels of war stationed on the Western Coast of Africa that from 1st April 1844, to 6th July, 1845, no fewer than seventy-five slavers have been captured by them, the Americans having during the same period captured one slaver, making a total of seventy-six captured vessels during a period of fifteen months and six days.
  Commodore Jones, the senior officer of the station, arrived here in the steam frigate Penelope from Ascension, having left that island on Monday last, reports the death of Lieutenant Horatio F. Elliott, of H.M.S. Albatross. Mr. Elliott was on his way to this island with a prize crew of H.M.S. Albatross, and when within a short distance off the island provisions fell short, and finding it difficult to beat up, they put back into Anna Bona. After obtaining what they wanted they sailed for St. Helena, when fever broke out and carried off Mr. Elliott and five men. Mr. Elliott was a promising young officer and son of Rear-Admiral Elliott.
——St. Helena Gazette, Sept. 1845. (Jackson, pg. 267)

1845-07-11: Capture of brig, unknown nation, by the Albatross; sixth capture of vessel; equipped for slave trade; vessel was condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court, St. Helena, 14 Aug. 1845; proceeds paid to captors. (Slave 1847, pp. 40, 82)

    "The brig (name and nation unknown), taken by H.M.S. Albatross (Reginald Yorke, commander) on the 11th July last, on West Coast of Africa, in lat. 10' 20" S. and long. 10' 42" E., brought to this port [St. Helena] under the charge of Lieut. J.A. Dunbar, R.N., on the 27th, being fully equipped for the slave-trade, was condemned and forfeited to Her Majesty in the Vice-Admiralty Court of this island on Thursday last, 14th inst., according to the provisions contained in the Act of Parliament, 2nd and 3rd of Victoria, chap. 13. (Jackson, pg. 266, probably citing the St. Helena Gazette.)

1845-07-14: Arrival of the Rev. J. M'Gregor Bertram at St. Helena. Mr. James Morris, resident of Jamestown, "to whom Mr. Bertram had been commended, in a letter of introduction from the Rev. T.L. Hodgson, Superintendent of the Wesleyan Missions in the Cape Colony," bade welcome to Rev. Mr. Bertram.

   "From the landing-place, a narrow road, lined with evergreen trees, of the banian species, called in Bengal, the peepul tree, leads along the face of the perpendicular cliff, toward the gate of the fortress and town, at the mouth of the valley or gorge, which is here crossed by a strong and lofty wall, pierced with embrasures, and mounted with guns. Before reaching the gate, a wide moat is crossed by a drawbridge. Beyond the gate the town resembles an orderly garrison; every portion of the gully over which it is built, and which, narrowing rapidly as it ascends, is nowhere more than six hundred yards wide, has been improved as much as possible. The houses are built along three principal streets, are generally of cut stone, and slated; but are seldom more than two stories in height. The gateway forms one side of the parade-ground, which is about two hundred feet square, and is kept very neatly. In two of the streets are found numerous shops, in which are to be had the produce of both hemispheres and continents. The principal street is Macadamized in the center, with pebble-walks on the sides, and extends the distance of a mile, with rows of the peepul tree, the most of the way, on either side. The scenery is altogether unique. The bold crags towering on either hand; the hills far away up the winding road that leads to the interior; and the broad expanse of ocean, the wide waste of waters in front, form one of the most picturesque scenes on which the eye can rest."

   Mr. Bertram was permitted by Mrs. Janisch to hold his religious services on the Sabbath in her house. His Excellency, Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton Trelawney, Governor, "showed no little kindness to Mr. Bertram." (Bertram 1852, pp. 127-36)

1845-07-23: Residents subscribed sums to encourage the Rev. Mr. Bertram to take up permanent residence on St. Helena, and to bring his wife and children to the island. Captain Adams, of the Velox, again offered free passage, and the family arrived from Cape Town in September. (Bertram 1852, pp. 139-40)

1845-07-30: The Rev. Mr. Bertram's congregation increasing, a meeting was called to "consult on the propriety of securing the erection or purchase of a mission house." On the 1st August, the Rev. George Morgan, of Cape Town wrote a letter to Mr. Bertram, to advise that a subscription had raised £163 on a first appeal to raise the means of building a mission house or chapel. A committee consisting of Captain O'Connor, Thomas Charlett, Esq., Messrs. William Carroll, Hudson R. Janisch, and five others, was appointed to obtain accommodation for the worshippers. "A large stone dwelling-house in the central part of the town, directly opposite the officers' barracks, belonging to  a lady in India, was purchased of her agent for £550. ... Measures were at once taken to alter, repair, and furnish the building, for the two-fold purpose of a house of worship, and a dwelling-place for the missionary and his family." (Bertram 1852, pp. 141-4)

1845: "The colony was provided with two clergymen of the Church of England, in the pay of the government, with large salaries, one of whom was called the colonial, and the other, the military chaplain. The former ministered to the European residents, and the other to the soldiers. They were both of the Oxford School, and fully embraced the Romanizing doctrines of Dr. Pusey and the Tractarians." (Bertram 1852, pg. 144)

   Until this year (1847),* "the Church of England had reigned supreme in the Island, it having been included in the See of Cape Town, and subject to periodical visits from that Bishop; but as the Church was represented on the spot only by a colonial chaplain and a garrison chaplain, a very inadequate number of clergymen, Dissent, which was introduced by a Scotch Baptist Minister about the year 1847, soon spread, and became a popular sectarian distinction among the native population." (Melliss, pg. 33) * This should have stated the year as 1845.

1845-08-06:
The Army.
  St. Helena Regiment.——The Cadet, freight ship, was to sail on Tuesday from Spithead for the island of St. Helena; she embarked on board from the Isle of Wight, on Monday, 3 officers and 45 rank and file of the St. Helena regiment to join the head-quarters in that island. (BNA: London Standard, 6 Aug. 1845)

1845-08-12: At Kingston Assizes an action was brought by Mr. Solomons, a merchant in St. Helena, who was in the habit of supplying water at that place to the ships by which it was visited against Mr. Lawson, of the Times newspaper. The libel complained of was contained in two letters published in the Times, which charged him with putting unwholesome water on board a vessel called the Moffat, in consequence of which it was alleged that the passengers and crew became very ill. The defendant's pleas amounted to a justification of the alleged libellous article. Verdict for the plaintiff. Damages, £500.
(Trove: Colonial Times, 12 Aug. 1845)

1845-09-01: John Watson, charged with having deserted the St. Helena Regiment, was tried in Mauritius:

  Mauritius.——Special Court of Admiralty.
  Monday, September 1, 1845.
  The Queen against James Dixon, master, John Thorp, first mate, Benjamin Brittany, second mate, John Watson, deserter from the St. Helena regiment, William Stokes and John Brown, deserters from H.M.S. Penelope, charged with having on the high seas, within the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, betrayed their trust, turned pirates and piratically and feloniously ran away with the brig Comet.
  The following are the chief particulars of the case, as submitted to the jury by the Public Prosecutor:——
  "The prisoner Dixon was not originally master of the vessel, when it sailed from England, but was on board merely as mate. From circumstances unconnected with the present proceedings the master left the ship, and Dixon took the command in his stead. The Comet received a cargo of guano, and proceeded to St. Helena. There he tran-shipped his cargo, and a short time afterwards announced his departure for England.
  "To carry his purpose into execution, he required abandoned men whose all was upon the cast; he therefore engaged a crew partly consisting of deserters, many of whom belonged either to her Majesty's army or navy. Under the cover of night, he ordered them to weigh anchor. Those of his crew who were honest considered this conduct suspicious and murmured at it, when Dixon, to end the matter, directed the cables to be slipped, upon which the vessel set sail and was soon upon the high sea. The well-meaning part of the crew felt increased anxiety when they found the head of the vessel turned in an opposite direction to England. Soon after the captain, in direct violation of the Navigation Act, which requires every vessel to carry her name at the poop in conspicuous letters, had the name of the vessel removed, and two of the prisoners aided in so doing.
 "Delachartre (one of the witnesses) questioned him as to their destination; first, it was the island of Tristan d'Acunha whither he was going to get provisions, afterwards it was the Cape. They fell in with a vessel bound to India, and Delachartre remarked that the Comet pursued a different course. He threatened to complain to the British consul at the first place they put into. He was ill-treated, beaten so that he was left motionless on deck, and afterwards put into irons.
  "The master then took his register and interpolated these words: to Tamana and thence: between "St. Helena" and "to London." He then erased from the crew list the name of Delachartre. What could have been his object or interest in so doing he (Mr. Williams) was not aware. The master only informed Delachartre at one time that, if he betrayed him, he would stab him; at another, that he would leave him [illegible] island where he might [illegible] in the rocks.
 [Illegible], they went [illegible] being there no English, act as interpreter between himself and the French commandant, and promised him his liberty if he behaved quietly. He then told him that he had erased his name from the crew-list, and requested him to interline it again.
  Afterwards at St. Mary's, the master used all his endeavours to get the ship condemned. He drew up a false statement, signed by the first mate, Brown the soldier, and Delachartre, in which he declared that his register had fallen into the water as he was coming on shore. He asserted the same fact in his deposition made a few days afterwards.
  In the meanwhile, H.M.S. Conway arrived. Captain Kelly was informed of the French commandant of the Comet being without a register, and was himself surprised at the absence of any name from her stern. Finally, both by letter and in presence of the commander of the Conway, the master finished by avowing all. He confessed to Captain Kelly that he had not lost his register, but left in St. Helena.
  After a trial of three days, the jury returned a verdict against all the prisoners, upon which the court gave the following judgment:——Dixon, the master, and Watson, the soldier, transportation for life; the first and second mates, Thorpe and Brittany, 15 years' transportation; and the two deserters from H.M.S. Penelope, three years' imprisonment with hard labour.
(Trove: Launceston Advertiser, 1 Jan. 1846)

1845-09-16:
From the London Gazette.
Tuesday, Sept. 16.
War Office.
  St. Helena Regiment.——Ensign J. Stainforth to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Hughes, appointed to the 98th Foot; R.A. London,* Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Stainforth.
(BNA: London Standard, 17 Sept. 1845)

* The Standard printed a correction in the 11th October 1845 edition: the surname should have been Loudon.

1845-09-16: The St. Helena Gazette of September 20 published the following article about the death of James Emily:

  On Tuesday, 16th inst., Mr. T.B. Knipe held an inquest in the Moon Tavern, Jamestown, upon the body of James Emily, who had fractured his skull by throwing himself over a precipice on the side of Ladder Hill, that morning about six o'clock. The deceased was for many years a private soldier in H.M. 91st Regiment, and was discharged at his own request with a good character and a gratuity. For the last six years he has been employed as a master blacksmith, under the orders of the commanding engineer, and was always considered a sober steady man. On the morning of his death he absented himself from work, and was seen walking from H.T. Hollow towards town with a man named Henry Leo. Policeman William Smith and Private Hardy of the St. Helena Regiment, who were at the upper part of Jamestown, saw the deceased climb the wall, walk deliberately to the edge of the precipice in the highest part, and throw himself head foremost, a height of more than 30 feet. His body was with difficulty removed, and his remains were interred between nine and ten o'clock that night in the Upper Churchyard, Jamestown, without the rites of Christian burial.
(Jackson, pp. 78-9)

1845-09-24: Capture of Roza, unknown nation; 109 ft long, 33 ft 2 in broad, 13 ft 2 in deep, full of slaves; equipped for slave trade; eighth capture of ship; was set on fire, run on shore, and abandoned by her crew, on being chased by H.M.'s sloop Cygnet, Henry Layton, Esq., commander, in the River Congo; figure-head, bower anchor, and chain cable, a boat, and 24 puncheon staves were saved from the wreck and brought to St. Helena; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 2 Dec. 1845: pronounced liable to forfeiture at the time of seizure, for being equipped for the slave trade; figure-head, and other articles saved, were condemned and ordered to be sold: proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; the slaves were relanded. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 40, 83, 343)

1845-09-25: Capture of Cacique, 222 tons, steam-ship, unknown nation; equipped for slave trade; captured by the Penelope; fourth capture of ship; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 30 Oct. 1845; proceeds of sale paid to captors; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83)

1845-09-30: Capture of Ligeira, 120 tons, brigantine; equipped for slave trade; captured by the Penelope; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 30 Oct. 1845; proceeds of sale paid to captors; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83)

1845-10: St James' church reopened after undergoing repairs since January, 1843. (SHF)

1845-10: The mission house for services by the Rev. Mr. Bertram was completed. (Bertram 1852, pg. 146)

1845: "Shortly after the opening of the mission-house, a theatre was attempted in the barracks, directly across the street, and opened on the same evening of the week on which the dissenting chapel was opened. The attention of the soldiers was thus diverted or distracted from the preaching of the word. Of course, every inducement was held out, to draw a full audience, to witness the stage-playing, from both the garrison and the town. The introduction of a species of amusement which has ever proved a fruitful means or occasion of dissipation and uncleanness, as well as an effectual source of hardness of heart, and blindness of mind, was a great grief to the little band of [Baptist] brethren, who were laboring for the salvation of the souls of their fellow-sinners. ... The operations of the theatre were suspended, and the gospel triumphed gloriously." (Bertram 1852, pp. 177-9)

1845-10-02: Capture of brig, unknown, 195-1/2 tons, Bento Jozé d'Almeida, master, crew of 16; equipped for slave trade; captured by John Hay, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Prometheus, on the west coast of Africa; eighth capture of ship; arrived at St. Helena, 17 Dec. 1845, under the charge of John Russell, boatswain's mate, Prometheus; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 12 Jan. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel demolished, materials and cargo sold by public auction, and proceeds of sale paid to captors; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 347, 365)

1845-10-10: Capture of brig, unknown, 233 tons; equipped for slave trade; captured by H.M.'s sloop, Star, Robert John Wallace Dunlop, Esq., Captain, off Molembo Bay, where her crew, after an ineffectual attempt to escape, ran her on shore, and abandoned her; twelfth capture of vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 8 Nov. 1845, under the charge of James Brodie, master's assistant of the Star; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 1 Dec. 1845: the cargo, tackle, apparel, and furniture ordered to be sold, but the demolition of the hull was stayed for six months; proceeds of sale paid to captors; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 342)

1845-10-13: Capture of a Slave Steamer.——H.M. steam frigate Penelope, from Loando, had arrived at St. Helena, having captured a steam slave ship off Loando. The prize was expected at St. Helena, when the Patriot Queen left there, on the 13th of October, and arrived in London on Sunday.
(BNA: Glasgow Herald, 28 Nov. 1845)

  Capture of a Slave Steamer.——The following is an extract of a letter from her Majesty's ship Penelope, dated St. Helena, Oct. 13, published in the Devonport Telegraph:——"We left on the 19th September for the coast, and on the 26th a sail was reported ahead, which was soon made out to be a steamer, and, knowing that none of ours were there, supposed her to be the French Commodore (as that was the only one we knew of); were getting ready to salute, but, as we headed her, we could not understand why she did not show her colours. We fired a blank gun, when we saw her hoist a Brazilian ensign, and throw a parcel overboard, and we passed papers floating. We stopped, and sent the cutter to board her, and, when the boat left the ship, we saw another parcel of papers with a weight attached to it thrown over the stern; and, as soon as the lieutenant boarded, he hailed, "No papers, and completely fitted for the slave trade." She proved to be called the Cacique, from Campos, in the Brazils, and cruizing off the coast for a cargo of slaves. She had been to the mouth of the Congo, but, as she could not get the whole of them, she was obliged to leave, and intended to return in a few days, when there were to have been 1,500 slaves ready for her; but, as we pinned her, we saved her the trouble. The Cacique is an American built vessel, with a high pressure engine on the upper deck, of forty horse power; all the crew live on the upper deck also, so that her full length is given to the slave deck. Her crew consisted of twenty-six men and two stokers (Americans). We sent one lieutenant, two midshipmen, and two engineers, and twenty-eight men to bring her to this place for condemnation; and on the morning of the 30th, at daylight, a sail was reported, which proved to be a brigantine, called the Lugeria, with no papers, with a slave deck laid. We sent her also to this place, as they are both Vice Admiralty Court cases."——Britannia, Dec. 6. (Trove: The Maitland Mercury, 9 May 1846)

1845-10-21: Capture of brig, Descrobidor,* 127 tons, Antonio Baptista da Costa Pereira, master; crew of 14, and 1 passenger; equipped for slave trade; captured by Robert John Wallace Dunlop, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Star, in the mouth of the River Congo; thirteenth capture of vessel; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 15 Jan. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel destroyed, no proceeds of sale; vessel was wrecked on the beach in front of James Town, by the violence of the surf, 17 Feb. 1846, and totally lost; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 352-3, 365) * The 1847 publication referred to the captured ship as the Discoberida.

1845-10-24: Capture of brig, name and nation unknown, 30 tons; equipped for slave trade; captured by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop, Star, at anchor in Cabenda Bay, abandoned by her crew; fourteenth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 5 Dec. 1845, under the charge of Mr. Carrington, midshipman, Cygnet; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 1 Dec. 1845: ordered to be broken up and sold: proceeds of sale paid to captors; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 345)

1845-10-24: Capture of schooner, unknown, 195-1/2 tons; equipped for slave trade; captured by the Cygnet; ninth capture of this vessel; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 29 Dec. 1845; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83)

1845-11-03: Capture of brigantine, Isabella, 97 tons, Joaze Pierrera, master; crew of 16; equipped for the slave trade; captured off Cabenda Bay, by Henry Layton, Esq., commander of H.M.'s sloop, Cygnet; tenth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 24 Nov. 1845, under the charge of Lieut. Oakeley, of the Cygnet; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 11 Dec. 1845, and ordered to be broken up and sold; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 344)

1845-11-11: Capture of Brazilian schooner, Aquila, 108 tons, Jozé Alves Dias, master, crew of 14 including master; owner, Manoel Jozé dos Reis Motta; equipped for slave trade; captured by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet, at anchor in Cabenda Bay; eleventh capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 28 Nov. 1845, under the charge of Mr. Bere, naval cadet, Cygnet; adjudicated by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 19 Mar. 1846: vessel decreed to be restored, Captain Layton not being authorized, according to the provisions of the Act 8 & 9 Victoria, cap. 122, to make seizures of vessels engaged in the African Slave Trade in contravention of the Convention between Great Britain and Brazil; vessel was wrecked on the beach in front of James Town, by the violence of the surf, 17 Feb. 1846, and totally lost; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1846, pp. 41, 83, 359, 365)

1845-11-11: Arrival at St. Helena of captured brig, name and nation unknown, 176 tons, crew of 18, under the charge of Lieut. Lloyd, of H.M.'s sloop, Star; equipped for slave trade; adjudicated on the 1st Dec. 1845: vessel condemned for being equipped for the slave trade, ordered to be broken up and sold. (Slave  1847, pp. 341-2)

1845-11-17: Capture of Polacca brig, name and nation unknown; 85 ft long, 25 ft broad, 14 ft deep; equipped for slave trade; captured by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet, in Molembo Bay; vessel was cut adrift and abandoned by the crew and, after ineffectual efforts to save her, was wrecked on the beach in Molembo Bay; twelfth capture of this vessel; a royal-yard and boat belonging to the vessel were saved and brought to St. Helena; the royal-yard and boat were condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena: pronounced liable to forfeiture and condemnation at the time of seizure, the boat and royal-yard ordered to be sold; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pg. 41, 352, 365)

1845-11-18: Establishment of the Widows’ and Orphans’ Fund, or Social Society. The objects of the society were to "raise from time to time by subscriptions among the members or by voluntary contributions, or by donations, a stock or fund for the benefit of the widows and orphans of the members and a Burial Allowance for the members." (Jackson, pg. 299)
  The Social Society, founded in 1845, had objects similar to the Mechanics' and Friendly Benefit and the Poor Societies, but under different regulations. The Church Society "distributes aid to the clergy, catechists, and scripture readers, from funds collected by subscriptions, and grants from the English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." (Melliss, pg. 41)

1845-11-22: Capture of schooner, unknown, 145 tons; equipped for slave trade; captured by John Hay, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Prometheus, in the River Congo; tenth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 10 Dec. 1845, under the charge of Mr. William Innes Bridges, midshipman, Prometheus; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 29 Dec. 1845: ordered to be broken up and sold; proceeds of sale paid to captors; — slaves captured.
(Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 346)

1845-12: Both the Agricultural and Horticultural Society and the St Helena Volunteer Rifle Corps were established. (SHF)

1845-12-04: Capture of Brazilian brig, Eliza, 237 tons, Ovidio dos Santos Lopez, master, crew of 31; owner, Higino Pires Gomes; equipped for slave trade; captured by Robert Harris, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Flying Fish; first capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 3 Feb. 1846, under the charge of Lieut. Hansard, of the Flying Fish; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 2 Mar. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold, materials and cargo sold for £197 6s. 1d.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 356, 365, 383)

1845-12-18: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, Quatro de Março, 146 tons, with 572 slaves on board; Adrian Jozé de Mello Moraes, master, crew of 22; owner, Antonio Pinto Fereira Vianna; captured by Henry Layton, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Cygnet; thirteenth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 26 Dec. 1845, under the charge of Charles Harries Jones, Esq., purser, Cygnet; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 12 Jan. 1846: ordered to be sold; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; of the 572 slaves found on board, 540 arrived at St. Helena and 475 were alive at the time of adjudication; vessel was thrown on the rocks in front of James Town, by the violence of the surf, 17 Feb. 1846; a portion of the hull and stores were saved, and sold for the sum of £28 16s. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 348, 365, 383)

1845-12-22:
The Army.
  St Helena Regiment——The St Helena Gazette of the 1st Nov. contains the following complimentary notice:——"Lieut.-Col. Fraser, commanding the troops in this island, inspected the St Helena regiment on the 22d ult. in heavy marching order, in the barrack-square, James Town; and on the following day the Lieut.-Colonel inspected the regiment in battery. Orders have been issued from the Horse Guards on the formation of the corps, to instruct them in the use and management of great guns, thus enabling them to act in conjunction with the royal artillery, should their services be so required. The following is a copy of the general order issued by the Lieut.-Colonel commanding on this occasion:——G.O.——Town Major's Office, 25th Oct. 1845.——Lieut.-Colonel Fraser, in completing another half-yearly inspection of the troops, has been much gratified with their general appearances, and congratulates the garrison on the great decrease of crime observable in the returns since last inspection. The royal artillery exhibited a marked improvement on parade and in barracks, and their practice was as good as could be expected from very old guns and older shot. The St Helena regt. continue to maintain the same character for cleanliness, efficiency, and soldierlike appearance which they have always merited, and the spirited manner in which they performed the artillery duties, shows what might be done in a very short time, with non-commissioned officers and men, able and willing to acquire that proficiency in great-gun exercise which was deemed essential at the formation of the corps, and in which they have already made progress so highly creditable to Major O'Dell and the officers in general. (Signed) G.A. Barnes, Town Major.
(BNA: Caledonian Mercury, 8 Jan. 1846)

1845-12-24: Capture of brigantine, name and nation unknown, 95 tons; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364). Another source cites this vessel as a Polacca brig, unknown name and unknown nation; equipped for the slave trade; captured by Robert John Wallace Dunlop, Esq., commander, H.M.'s sloop Star, off Quicumbo; fifteenth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 15 Jan. 1846, under the charge of Mr. Charles Burney, master's assistant of the Star; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 9 Feb. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was wrecked on the beach in front of James Town, by the violence of the surf, 17 Feb. 1846, and totally lost; — slaves captured. (Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 355, 365)

1845-12-25: Capture of Brigantine schooner, Eufrazia,* 87 tons, Mathias Jozé d'Carvalho, master, crew of 20; owner, Fermino Jozé da Rosa; equipped for slave trade; captured by John Hay, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Prometheus, off the River Congo; twelfth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 9 Jan. 1846, under the charge of Lieut. Pollard, of the Prometheus; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was wrecked on the beach in front of James Town, by the violence of the surf, 17 Feb. 1846, and totally lost; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pg. 41, 349, 365) * The 1847 publication (pg. 41) cites the name as Eugrazia, 60 tons.

1845-12-25: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, San Domingo, 102 tons, Jozé Vianna, master, crew of 7; owner, Domingos Lourenço Gomes de Carvalho; equipped for slave trade; captured by John Hay, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Prometheus, off the River Congo; thirteenth capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 13 Jan. 1846, under the charge of Mr. William Clark, naval cadet, of the Prometheus; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 2 Feb. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; vessel was wrecked on the beach in front of James Town, by the violence of the surf, 17 Feb. 1846, and totally lost; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 353, 365)

1845-12-26: Capture of Brazilian brigantine, Esperanza, 122 tons, Jozé Antonio d'Alvarenza, master, no. of crew not known; owner, Manoel dos Santos; equipped for slave trade; seized by George Mansel, Esq., Captain, H.M.'s ship, Actæon, off Point Jumna, on the west coast of Africa; second capture of this vessel; arrived at St. Helena, 7 Jan. 1846, under the charge of Mr. John W. Lowe, second master, Actæon; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 29 Jan. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; proceeds of sale applied towards payment of captors' expenses; vessel was wrecked on the beach in front of James Town, by the violence of the surf, 17 Feb. 1846, and totally lost, except for a chronometer, which was sold for £11 0s. 10d.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 350, 365, 383)

1845-12-26: Capture of Brazilian brig, San Lorenzo, 182-1/2 tons, Jacob Jozé Lopes, master and owner, crew of 17; equipped for the slave trade; captured by John Hay, Esq., commander, H.M.'s steam-sloop Prometheus, off the River Congo; fourteenth capture of this vessel; vessel condemned by the Vice-Admiralty Court of St. Helena, 5 Feb. 1846: ordered to be broken up and sold; proceeds of sale paid to captors; demolition was stayed at the request of the Governor: vessel was taken into H.M.'s service by the Governor, to be returned if such sum as the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty shall deem a proper price be not paid within twelve months; apparel, furniture, and cargo sold for £100 3s. 9d.; — slaves captured. (Lords 1849, pg. 364; Slave 1847, pp. 41, 83, 354, 365, 383)

1845-12-26: Birth: On the 26th of December, at Charltoa Kings, the lady of Captain A.A. Younge, St. Helena Regiment, of a daughter. (BNA: Morning Post, 3 Jan. 1846)

1845-12-30:
The Army.
Promotions and Exchanges.
    War-office, Dec. 30. St. Helena Regiment.——Ensign Joseph Hayes to be Adjutant, vice Lieutenant Macbean, who resigns the Adjutancy only. (BNA: Dublin Evening Mail, 2 Jan. 1846)

1845: In a despatch written to the Right Hon. W.E. Gladstone, dated 31 March 1846, Governor Trelawney forwarded the "Blue Book" for the colony of St. Helena. That book included information about the revenue and expenditure of the island, names of the civil servants on the establishment, and other data pertinent to the administration of the government of St. Helena. The following is an outline of selected items published in the Blue Book for 1845:

  • The Civil Establishment consisted of: R.C. Pennell, Colonial Secretary; J.G. Doveton, Colonial Treasurer; J.N. Fermin, acting Queen's Advocate; C.M. Vowell, Colonial Surgeon; and, Lieut.-Col. Hodson, Summary Judge, who was on two years' leave.
  • A special disbursement was made of £300 8s. 4d. representing the loss sustained on foreign coins by the change of the currency to British sterling.
  • 540 liberated Africans arrived on the 26th December, of whom 21 died from dysentery and "the crowded state in which they were brought here, leaving 519 in charge of the Collector of Customs," 31 Dec. 1845.
  • The total number of ships touching at St. Helena during 1845 amounted to 1,458, including 33 men of war and 13 slave prizes.
  • Imports had increased, chiefly of British goods, to meet the demands from the naval squadron on the coast.

    Source: Colonies 1845, pp. 124-5.

Previous: Link to timeline for the year 1844.
Next: Link to timeline for the year 1846.

See also: Impressions of the St Helena Regiment, 1845.

This page was first published on the 7th July 2015; subsequently edited, 14th July 2015, and 5th November 2015.

Return to St Helena and the St Helena Regiment index page.
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© Alison Kilpatrick, 2015. All rights reserved.
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"The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there."—Lesley Poles Hartley (1895–1972), The Go-Between (1953).

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