Louis H. Huggins (1842–1918) of St. Joseph, Missouri

Many of the links in this timeline open in new windows. The footnote references are hyperlinked to the Sources section at the bottom of this page.

Introduction:—Louis Huggins was the sixth child of James Huggins (1797–1863) of Gortgonis, county Tyrone, and Mary Sublett (1810–1897) of Sublett’s Ferry in Woodford County, Kentucky. He was born at Versailles in that county on the 1st February 1842. His elder siblings died young, leaving Louis and his younger brother, William, to survive into adulthood. The Huggins family removed from Louisville, Kentucky to Saint Joseph, Missouri in 1858. The timeline, below, picks up Louis Huggins’ life story from the early 1860s.

Timeline:

1863-04-10 – Death of Louis Huggins’ father, James Huggins, in Saint Joseph, Missouri, aged sixty-five years. [21] 

ca 1863 – In accordance with the Enrollment Act (1863), Louis’ name was registered in the U.S. Civil War draft. The record of registrations for Buchanan County, in the state of Missouri, included the following details: Louis Huggins, age 21, Clerk, single, non resident. It appears that Louis was not called up to serve. [1] 

1867-68 – Listings in the city directory for St. Joseph, Missouri:

  • Huggins Louis, book keeper, cor Fifth and Antoine
  • Huggins William, teller, cor Fifth and Antoine [2] 

1869 – Listings in the city directory for Saint Joseph:

  • Huggins Lewis, salesman Tootle, Fairleigh & Co, bds [boards] e s 5th bet Antoine and Isador
  • Huggins William, teller Buchanan Life and General Ins Co, bds e s 5th bet Isador and Antoine [42] 

1869-02-01 – Louis and his brother, William, were two of the legatees named in their uncle, Dr. William Hugginslast will and testament. [44] 

1870-01-11 – U.S. Census  (1870) enumeration:

  • J.W. McManny, age 26, male, white, Real Estate Agent, value of real estate: $20,000, value of personal estate: $1,000, born in Ireland
  • W. Huggins, age 26, male, white, Acct Cashier Bank, value of personal estate: $1000, born in Kentucky
  • L. Huggins, age 28, male, white, Toy Merchant, do. [ditto.], do.
  • Isaac Curd, age 43, male, white, Capitalist, value of real estate: $50,000, value of personal estate: $50,000, born in Virginia
  • census place: City of Saint Joseph, Missouri [3] 

1870-07-02 – The 1870 Census enumerated the brothers a second time:

  • Huggins William, age 30, male, white, Bank Cashier, born in Missouri
  • Huggins Lewis, age 28, male, white, Clerk in Bank, born do.
  • census place: hotel kept by John and Richard Saunders (probably the establishment variously known as Saunders House, Saunders Hotel, or Saunders Hostelry) in Ward 2, Saint Joseph, Missouri [4] 

c.1870/1† – Louis Huggins “embarked upon his first business enterprise, making the trip to Montana by wagon train, where for the next three years he was engaged in general merchandising” and freighting across the plains. [39] [41] The obituaries cite the early 1860s. However the timeline math would be off by ten years.

1874 – Louis returned to St. Joseph and, with his brother William, launched a soap manufactory at the corner of Sixth and Olive streets. The soap venture conducted business as the Great Western Soap Works, L. Huggins & Co., proprietors, and was considered one of the city’s substantial industries. [6] [39] [41] [43] 

c.1876 – Louis “established a toy and crockery house just south of Francis street, on Third.” [41] 

1877 – Frank L. Sommer, John Townsend, and Louis Huggins, operating as the firm of F.L. Sommer & Co., opened a cracker manufactory at Main and Francis streets in Saint Joseph (which site was that of the National Biscuit Company by 1918). [6] [39] [41]

1880-07-01 – When the 1880 census was enumerated, Louis and his mother and brother were staying with his maternal aunt Frances:

  • Francis [sic] O’Neill, white, female, age 60, (head), widowed, Housekeeping, born in Kentucky, both parents born in Kentucky
  • Mary Huggins, white, female, age 70, boarding, widowed, born in Kentucky, both parents born in Kentucky
  • Louis Huggins, white, male, age 35, son, single, Manfe [manufacture?] Crackers, born in Kentucky, [birthplace of parents not specified]
  • Wm. Huggins, white, male, age 33, son, single, Retail Grocer, do., do.
  • census place: St. Joseph, Buchanan County, Missouri [5] 

1881 – Extract from History of Buchanan County, Missouri—

     Louis Huggins, of F. L. Sommer & Co., is a native of
   Kentucky, and was born February 1, 1843, and is the son
   of James and Mary Huggins, pioneers of that state. When
   Louis was in his fifteenth year, the family removed to
   St. Joseph, Missouri, where he was raised to manhood
   and educated. It may be said that since he came to this
   city, he has been constantly identified with the business
   circles, as for a number of years he clerked in different
   houses, and was also engaged in the notion trade. In 1874,
   he embarked in the soap manufacturing business, in which
   he continued until 1877, when he became one of the firm of
   F. L. Sommer & Co., cracker manufacturers. [6]

1882 – Listings in the city directory for Saint Joseph:

  • Huggins, Louis, (F.L. Sommer & Co.,) r. 613 n. 5th
  • Huggins, Mary, Mrs. r. 613 n. 5th
  • Huggins, William, clk F.L. Sommer & Co., r. 613 n. 5th [8] 

1882 – Louis Huggins founded the Huggins Cracker and Candy Company at 125 North Kansas avenue in Topeka, Kansas: [9] 

     The Huggins Cracker and Candy Company was established
   in 1883 [sic]. Its founder was Louis Huggins. When the
   Huggins Cracker and Candy Company was organised, Mr.
   Huggins became its president; W.G. Fairlie its vice-
   president and secretary and treasurer, and H.F. Vories
   an active partner. The business of this company, long,
   successful and increasing, was suddenly terminated in
   1887 by the complete destruction of the establishment
   by fire. [7]

1882 – Listings in the Saint Joseph, Missouri city directory:

  • Huggins, Louis, (F.L. Sommer & Co.,) r. 613 n. 5th
  • Huggins, Mary, Mrs. r. 613 n. 5th
  • Huggins, William, clk F.L. Sommer & Co., r. 613 n. 5th [10] 

1885 – Listings in the Kansas city, Missouri city directory:

  • Huggins Cracker & Candy Co. L. Huggins prest.; W.G. Fairleigh, vice prest.; H.F. Vories, sec’y. & treas. 1063 and 1065 St. Louis av. tel 102. 
  • Huggins Louis, prest. Huggins Cracker & Candy Co., r. 1406 Central [11] 

1886-04-17 – Thirty young women went on strike from Huggins Cracker & Candy Company, after their demands for wages of $5/week were not met. [12] 

1887-11-04 – The factory of the Huggins Cracker and Confectionery company, situated on St. Louis avenue near Union, burnt down in Kansas City. The fire was supposed to have originated owing to “the intense heat of the drying and baking ovens and the furnaces on the second floor.” Discovered at 11:30 p.m., the building was in ruins by 1:00 a.m. Losses were estimated at between $75,000 and $100,o00, with insurance covering most of the damages. [13]  In consequence of the fire in Kansas City, the plant in Topeka was brought up to full capacity. [14] 

Huggins Cracker and Candy company promoted, amongst many other confections, graham and oatmeal crackers, handmade cakes, sea foams, and jersey butters. [15]

1889-11-20 huggins-cracker-and-candy-ed

Advert placed by Huggins Cracker & Candy Co.
in The Journal (Russell, Kansas), 20 November 1889 (pg. 4).
Source: Digital image online at newspapers.com
(accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-07).

1890 – Listings in the Kansas City, Missouri city directory:

  • Huggins Cracker & Candy Co. 1055–1061 St. Louis av  Louis Huggins pres  Harry F. Vories sec and treas
  • Huggins Louis H. pres Huggins Cracker & Candy Co. 1055 St. Louis av  r 1447 Jefferson [16] 

1892-12-16 – At 8:00 p.m., the rebuilt factory of the Huggins Cracker and Candy company in Kansas City caught fire, and within an hour, had burnt to the ground. Two hundred employees just escaped with their lives. Property loss was estimated at $150,000. [17] 

c.1892–1898 – Louis Huggins managed the American Biscuit company’s plant in Omaha, Nebraska. [18] [41] 

1896-09-30 – Elected treasurer of the Nebraska Manufacturers and Consumers’ Association. [19] 

1897-01-20 – Death of Louis Huggins’ mother, Mary Huggins née Sublett, in Saint Joseph, Missouri, aged eighty-six years. [20] 

1898-02-03 – The National Biscuit Company [later known as Nabisco] was formed out of the consolidation of three manufacturing concerns: the United States baking company, the New York biscuit company, and the American Biscuit and Manufacturing company—the last of which firms Louis Huggins managed in Omaha, Nebraska. [22] 

end of 1898 – Louis Huggins removed from Omaha, returning to Saint Joseph, Missouri. [23] 

early 1899 – For the consideration of $15,000, Louis purchased the Silas M. Douglas, Jr., property, running from Seventh to Eighth streets, south of Hall. [24] 
formerly known as Bush street, according to the Rand McNally 1892 map of Saint Joseph. ☛ From the 1900 census and the contemporary city directories, it becomes clear that Louis had purchased a residential property at no. 600 North 8th street.

1900-06-01 – U.S. census enumeration:

  • Louis Higgins [sic], head, white, male, born February 1842, age 58, single; born in Kentucky, father born in Ireland, mother born in Kentucky; education: reads and writes, speaks English; owns home
  • William Higgins [sic], brother, white, male, born January 1844, age 56, single; born and education do.
  • Virginia Weakley, cousin, white, female, born May 1846, age 54, divorced; born and education do.
  • Catherine Weakley, cousin, white, female, born July 1875, age 24, single; born in Missouri, both parents born in Kentucky; education do.
  • Emily Carlson, cook, white, female, born February 1876, age 24, single; born in Sweden, both parents born in Sweden; immigrated to the U.S. in 1898; occupation: Cook; education do.
  • Maria Nordstrom, servant, white, female, born November 1877, age 22, single; born in Sweden, both parents born in Sweden; immigrated to the U.S. in 1897; occupation: Housemaid; education do.
  • census place: no. 600 North Eighth street, Saint Joseph, Missouri [25] 

1901-05-17 – Louis and his brother, William, made a gift to the endowment fund of Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. [26] 

1901-08-05 – Louis and his brother, William, applied for U.S. passports. The application recorded the following details for Louis: No. 46571; issued Aug 8 1901, State of Missouri, County of Buchanan. Louis Huggins, born at Versailles, Kentucky, on the 1st February 1842; father was a citizen of the U.S. Domicile: St. Joseph, Missouri. Occupation: Retired merchant. Intending to return to the U.S. in about six months. Age: 59 years. Stature: 5 feet, 6-1/8 inches. Forehead: prominent. Eyes: light blue. Nose: prominent. Mouth: large (grey mustache). Chin: round. Hair: light grayish. Complexion: ruddy. Face: medium. [27] 

    Later that month, the brothers departed Saint Joseph, accompanied by J.M. Frazer, for Victoria, British Columbia. From that port, they sailed for Japan to commence a world tour. Their objective was to observe railway projects in China and Japan, with a view to becoming heavy investors. [28] 

1902 – Listings in the Saint Joseph, Missouri city directory:

  • Huggins Louis, r 600 n 8th [r = residence]
  • Huggins William, r 600 n 8th [29] 

1904-04-25 – Vice President, Missouri and Kansas Oil and Gas company, operating in the Humboldt district of Kansas. [30] 

1905-12-30 – The Bartlett Trust company opened in Saint Joseph, the city’s first savings bank. Louis Huggins was one of the founding incorporators, owing 50 of 1,000 shares of common stock, and was appointed vice president. [31] 

1906-01-13 bartlett-trust-company-advert-ed

Advert for The Bartlett Trust Company;
published in The Catholic Tribune (Saint Joseph, Missouri), 13 January 1906.
Source: Digital image online at newspapers.com
(accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-07).

Click on image to view in new window.

1906-10 – Louis Huggins and his cousin, John S. Logan, with E. Dolman, filed articles of incorporation for the St. Joseph Belt & Interurban Railway Company. Mr. Logan was elected President, Louis, the Vice President, and Mr. Dolman, Secretary-Treasurer. The line was intended to run from 30th and Faraon streets in St. Joseph, northeast and northwards via the County Farm and Reservoir. [32] This company was merged with the St. Joseph & Nodaway Valley Railway in May, 1907. [33] 

1906-10 – Dr. W.R. Dobyns, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Saint Joseph, and Louis Huggins were elected by the Missouri Synod as trustees on the board of the new college of the Ozarks. [35] 

1907-09-11 – The School of the Ozarks was opened on Mount Huggins (named for Louis and William Huggins who were donors) near Branson, Missouri. [34] 

1910-04-19 – U.S. 1910 census enumeration:

  • Louis Huggins, head, male, white, age 68, single, born in Kentucky, both parents born in Ireland - English [sic], speaks English, Real Estate, reads and writes, rents house
  • William Huggins, brother, male, white, age 66, single, do., ...
  • Virginia Weakley, cousin, female, white, age 63, widow, do., father born in Pennsylvania, mother born in Kentucky, speaks English, reads and writes
  • Marsal [sic] W. Winter, coachman, male, white, age 44, married at age 23, born in Illinois, both parents born in Illinois, speaks English, reads and writes, 
  • Mable Wylander, maid, female, white, age 28, single, born in Illimois, both parents born in Sweden, speaks English, Domestic, reads and writes, 
  • Helen C. Boberg, cook, female, white, age 19, single, born in Sweden - Swedish, immigrated to the U.S. in 1909, speaks English, alien, Cook, reads and writes, 
  • census place: 600 North 8th, St. Joseph, Missouri [36] 

1915-01-12 – The School of the Ozarks burnt down, after which the school was housed temporarily at Forsyth before rebuilding at its permnanent location at Lookout Point, Missouri. [34] 

1917 – Listings in the Saint Joseph, Missouri city directory: [37] 

  • Huggins Louis, investments office 312-314 Corby-Forsee bldg, r 600 N 8th.
  • Huggins Wm, investments office 312-314 Corby-Forsee bldg, b 600 N 8th.

    residence.   boarding.

1918-01-08 – Death of Louis H. Huggins at Saint Joseph, Missouri, aged seventy-five years, [38] [39] and burial in Mount Mora cemetery. [40] 

1918-01-12 – Obituary published in the St. Joseph Observer newspaper: [39] 

   Louis Huggins Dead.
   A Pioneer Manufacturer of This City is
   Called to his Long Deep Rest.
     With the passing of Louis Huggins, which occurred at his
   late home, 600 North Eighth Street, at 3 o’clock Tuesday
   morning, one of the pioneer manufacturers of St. Joseph
   and a man who has done much to help to build up this great
   city has ceased his earthly activities. He had been ill
   for but a few days.
     It was on Feb. 1, 1842, that he was born at Versailles,
   Ky., and in 1858 with his father and mother, Mr. and Mrs.
   James Huggins, and his brother, William, he arrived in St.
   Joseph and spent all the rest of his life in this city.
     His first business venture was freighting across the
   plains, and after three years of this he and his brother
   William established a soap manufactury [sic]. Later he
   established a toy and crockery house on Third street and
   still later he and Frank Sommers and John Townsend
   established the cracker factory which is now the National
   Biscuit Company’s plant on Main and Francis. Eighteen
   years ago he retired from active business.
     The funeral occurred from the First Presbyterian church,
   of which he was a member, on Thursday afternoon and was
   largely attended by friends who deplore the taking away of
   a good man.
[39] 

Postscript – A reference to a last will and testament has not been found. However, when Louis’ brother, William, died two years later, a substantial estate was processed through probate. The estate was the product of both Louis’ and William’s cumulative wealth.

=========

Links:

Sources and notes:

1.

(a) "An Act for enrolling and calling out the national Forces, and for other Purposes." Congressional Record. 37th Cong. 3d. Sess. Ch. 74, 75. 1863. March 3, 1863. Online at "The Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, & Abolition," www.yale.edu/glc/archive/962.htm (accessed 2015-04-24).
(b) "Consolidated List of all Persons Subject to do Military Duty in the Seventh Congressional District in the State of Missouri, William Fowler, Provost Marshal." (re: Louis Huggins). Original records: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Consolidated Lists of Civil War Draft Registration Records (Provost Marshal General's Bureau; Consolidated Enrollment Lists, 1863-1865), Record Group: 110, Records of the Provost Marshal General's Bureau (Civil War), Collection Name: Consolidated Enrollment Lists, 1863-1865 (Civil War Union Draft Records), ARC Identifier: 4213514, Archive Volume Number: 1 of 1. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, 2015-05-02).
(c) U.S. National Park Service. The Civil War. “Soldiers and Sailors Database.” Online at www.nps.gov/civilwar/soldiers-and-sailors-database.htm (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-06). A search of the indexes hosted by U.S. National Park Service yields no service information for Louis Huggins of Saint Joseph, Missouri.

2.

Swick’s St. Joseph Direcotry, for 1867-88. Extracts: “Huggins Louis, book keeper, cor Fifth and Antoine; Huggins William, teller, cor Fifth and Antoine.” (pg 91.) St. Joseph, Missouri: Frank Swick, 1867. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

3.

U.S. 1870 Census. J.W. McManny, age 26); with W. Huggins (26), L. Huggins (28), and Isaac Curd (43); in Saint Joseph, Missouri. Original record: 1870 US population schedules, NARA microfilm M593-762, pg. 456B, image 103 (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.). Archival ref. Year: 1870; Census Place: St Joseph Ward 3, Buchanan, Missouri; Roll: M593_762; Page: 507A; enumerated 11th January 1870; per Family History Library (Salt Lake City, Utah) Film: 552261. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2014-03-21).

4.

U.S. 1870 Census. William Huggins, age 30, and Lewis Huggins, age 28; in a hotel operated by John and Richard Saunders in Ward 2, Saint Joseph, Missouri. Original record: 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. Archival ref. Year: 1870; Census Place: St Joseph Ward 2, Buchanan, Missouri; Roll: M593_762; Page: 460A; enumerated 2nd July 1870; per Family History Library (Salt Lake City, Utah) Film: 552261. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-06).

5.

U.S. 1880 Census. Frances O’Neill, age 60, with Mary Huggins (70), Louis Huggins (35) and William Huggins (33); in Saint Joseph, Buchanan County, Missouri. Original record: Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, NARA microfilm publication T9, Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29, National Archives, Washington, D.C. Archival ref. supervisor’s district no. 7, enumeration district no. 53, pg. 19; enumerated 4th June 1880. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2012-02-18).

6.

History of Buchanan County, Missouri. Citing a biographical sketch of Louis Huggins. St. Joseph, Missouri: St. Joseph Steam Printing Company, Printers, Binders, Etc., 1881.

7.

Case, Theodore Spencer. History of Kansas City. Syracuse, New York: D. Mason, 1888. (pg 284.) Hosted online by the State of Missouri, at Missouri Digital Heritage, cdm.sos.mo.gov/ (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2015-04-30).

8.

St. Joseph, Missouri, City Directory, 1882. Extracts: “Huggins, Louis, (F.L. Sommer & Co.,) r. 613 n. 5th; Huggins, Mary, Mrs. r. 613 n. 5th; Huggins, William, clk F.L. Sommer & Co., r. 613 n. 5th.” Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

9.

The Daily Commonwealth (Topeka, Kansas), 19 May 1888 (pg. 3). “Figures Do Not Lie. Some Unexaggerated Facts About Topeka.” Citing the incorporation details of many business firms, including Huggins Cracker and Candy company, 125 North Kansas avenue; Louis Huggins, president; W.G. Farleigh, vice president; H.F. Voreis, secretary and treasurer. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-06).

10.

St. Joseph, Missouri, City Directory, 1882. Extracts: “Huggins, Louis, (F.L. Sommer & Co.,) r. 613 n. 5th; Huggins, Mary, Mrs. r. 613 n. 5th; Huggins, William, clk F.L. Sommer & Co., r. 613 n. 5th.” Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

11.

Hoye’s City Directory of Kansas City (1885). Listings for Huggins Cracker and Candy Co., and Louis Huggins, president (pg. 293). Kansas City, Missouri: Hoyes, [1885]. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

12.

Chicago Tribune (Chicago, Illinois), 18 April 1886 (pg. 11). “Kansas City, Mo., April 17.” Citing a strike by thirty girls employed by Huggins Cracker & Candy Company, 1057 St. Louis avenue, Kansas City. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-07).

13.

(a) The Evening Bulletin (Maysville, Kentucky), 7 November 1887, pg. 2. Fire at Huggins Cracker and Confectionery. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-12-19).
(b) Arkansas City Traveler (Arkansas City, Kansas), 5 November 1887 (pg. 1). “Cracker Factory Burned.” (Huggins Cracker and Confectionery company.) Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-07).
(c) 
Concordia Blade-Empire (Concordia, Kansas), 5 November 1887 (pg. 2). “Cracker Factory Burned.” (Huggins’ cracker and candy company.) Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-07).
(d) 
The Ottawa Daily Republic (Ottawa, Kansas), 7 November 1887 (pg. 1). “Disastrous Fire at Kansas City.” (Huggins’ cracker and candy factory.) Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-07).

14.

(a) The Topeka Daily Press (Topeka, Kansas), 15 November 1887 (pg. 3). Extract: “The Huggins cracker factory will open next Monday, and will be run to its fullest capacity.” Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-07).
(b) The Kansas Newspaper Union (Topeka, Kansas), 19 November 1887 (pg. 2). Extract: "
The Huggins Cracker and Candy company, of Kansas City, which was burned out there last Friday night, has leased the cracker factory in Topeka and will commence making crackers at once. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-07).

15.

Fisher, Carol, and John Fisher. Pot Roast, Politics, and Ants in the Pantry: Missouri’s Cookbook Heritage. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 2008 (pg. 25).

16.

Hoye’s City Directory of Kansas City, Mo. (1890). Listings for Huggins Cracker and Candy Co., and Louis Huggins, president (pg. 341). Kansas City, Missouri: Hoyes, [1890]. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

17.

(a) The Evening Bulletin (Maysville, Kentucky), 16 December 1892, pg. 1. Fire at Huggins Cracker and Candy company. Online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2015-12-19).
(b) St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, Missouri), 16 December 1892 (pg. 1). “Huggins’ Cracker Factory Destroyed at Kansas City.” Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-07).

18.

The St. Joseph Herald (St. Joseph, Missouri), 21 January 1897 (pg. 3). “Mrs. Mary Huggins.” (obituary.) Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-05).

19.

The Beatrice Daily Express (Beatrice, Nebraska, USA), 1 October 1896 (pg. 4). “Nebraska M. & C. Association.” Citing the election of officers, including Louis Huggins as treasurer, 30th September 1896. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-06).

20.

Woodford Sun (Woodford County, Kentucky), 28 January 1897. “Death of Mrs. Mary Huggins.” Photocopy from research commissioned from the Woodford County Historical Society, Versailles, Kentucky; transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 19 February 2016.

21.

The Morning Herald (Saint Joseph, Missouri), 11 April 1863. Obituary for James Huggins, formerly of Versailles and Louisville, Kentucky. Digital image hosted online by The State Historical Society of Missouri, digital.shsmo.org (accessed and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2017-08-23).

22.

The Columbus Telegram (Columbus, Nebraska), 10 March 1898 (pg. 2). “Cracker and Business Trust.” Citing the consolidation of the American Biscuit and Manufacturing company (local manager in Omaha, Louis Huggins), United States baking company, and the New York biscuit company. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-07).

23.

The St. Joseph Herald (St. Joseph, Missouri), 11 December 1898 (pg. 11). “Mr. Louis Huggins, who has for a number of years been connected with the National Biscuit company at Omaha, has come to St. Joseph, and will make his home here in the future.” Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-05).

24.

The St. Joseph Herald (St. Joseph, Missouri), 1 February 1899 (pg. 5). Purchase of property in St. Joseph by Louis Huggins. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-05).

25.

U.S. 1900 Census. Louis Higgins [Huggins], age 58; with brother, William (56), and cousins: Virginia Weakley (54) and Catherine Weakley (24); cook, Emily Carlson (24), and housemaid, Maria Nordstrom (22); in Saint Joseph, Missouri. Original record: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900.. Archival ref. Year: 1900; Census Place: St Joseph Ward 3, Buchanan, Missouri; Page: 2; Enumeration District: 0052, enumerated 1st June 1900; per Family History Library (Salt Lake City, Utah) FHL microfilm: 1240842. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-07-06).

26.

Marshall Republican, 17 May 1901 (Marshall, Missouri), 17 May 1901 (pg. 1). Citing Louis Huggins and William Huggins, gift to Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri. Digital image online at www.newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-04-29).

27.

U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925. Louis Huggins, St. Joseph, Missouri, applied 5th August 1901, issued 8th August 1901. Original record: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Washington D.C., NARA Series: Passport Applications, 1795-1905, Roll # 585, Volume # Roll 585 - 01 Aug 1901 – 31 Aug 1901. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

28.

The Kansas City Gazette (Kansas City, Kansas), 22 August 1901 (pg. 8). J.M. Frazer, William Huggins, and Louis Huggins, depart on trip around the world; interest in railway projects in China and Japan. Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-06).

29.

Combe Printing Co.’s 1902 Directory of St. Joseph and Buchanan County [Missouri], 1882. Louis Huggins, and William Huggins, r. 600 n 8th (pg. 472). Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

30.

Humboldt Herald (Humboldt, Kansas), 25 April 1904 (pg. 1). Extract: “The Missouri and Kansas Oil and Gas company, operating in the Humboldt district, is composed of St. Joseph capitalists, with J.H. Stringfellow, of Humboldt, manager. Following we give the list of officers and directors: Dr. Jacob Geiger, president; Louis Huggins, vice president;  …” Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-06).

31.

St. Joseph Gazette (St. Joseph, Missouri), 31 December 1905 (pg. 2). “Savings Bank to Begin Business.” Citing the Bartlett Trust Company, articles of incorporation filed, incorporators and numbers of shares subscribed (Louis Huggins, 50), directors (Louis Huggins, vice president). Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-07).

32.

(a) The Joseph News-Press/Gazette (St. Joseph, Missouri), 27 October 1906 (pg. 1). “Interurban Company Elects Its Officers.” (b) The Catholic Tribune (St. Joseph, Missouri), 27 October 1906 (pg. 8). “City News Items. … Articles of incorporation were filed…” Digital images online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-05).

33.

The St. Joseph Observer (St. Joseph, Missouri), 25 May 1907 (pg. 1). “Two Corporations Merge.” Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-05).

34.

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. “College of the Ozarks.” CIting Louis and William Huggins who donated money for the school, which opened 11th September 1907 on Mount Huggins, near Branson, Missouri. Online at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/College_of_the_Ozarks (accessed 2019-07-07).

35.

The Joseph News-Press/Gazette (St. Joseph, Missouri), 3 November 1906 (pg. 1). “Back From the Synod. Dr. W.R. Dobyns and Louis Huggins Made Trustees of New College of the Ozarks.” Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-07).

36.

U.S. 1910 Census. Louis Huggins, age 68, with brother, William (66), cousin Virginia Weakley (63), Marshal W. Winter (coachman, age 44), Mable Wylander (maid, age 28), and Helen C. Boberg, cook age 19); in Washington township, Saint Joseph, Missouri. Original record: Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 (NARA microfilm T624-829, pg. 5B, enumeration district 0083), Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29, National Archives, Washington, D.C. Archival ref. supervisor’s district 4, enumeration district 64, sheet 3B, enumerated 19th April 1910. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2015-04-30).

37.

R.L. Polk & Co.’s St. Joseph City Directory, 1917. Extracts: “Huggins Louis investments office 312-314 Corby-Forsee bldg, r 600 N 8th; Huggins Wm investments office 312-314 Corby-Forsee bldg, b 600 N 8th.” (pg 289.) Chicago, Illinois, R.L. Polk & Co., [1917]. Digital image online at ancestry.ca (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2015-05-02).

38.

State of Missouri (USA). Missouri State Board of Health. Bureau of Vital Statistics. Certificate of Death. Louis Huggins; place of death: 600 North 8th Street, St. Joseph, Buchanan County; registration district no. 85, primary registration district no. 1001, file no. 247, registered no. 28; personal and statistical particulars: male, white, single, date of birth - 1st February 1842, age - 75 years 11 months 7 days, occupation - real estate, birthplace - Versailles, Ky., father - James Huggins, born in Ireland, mother - Mary Sublette, born in Woodford Co., Ky., informant - William Huggins, 600 N. 8th St.; medical certificate of death: date of death - 8th January 1918, attended by [illegible] from 28 December 1917 to 8 January 1918, cause of death - carbuncle on the back; place of burial or removal: Mt. Mora (vault) Cem., 10 January 1918, undertaker - Heaton B Gale Und Co., 224 So. 8th St. Digital image hosted online by Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State, www.sos.mo.gov/ (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2015-04-30).

39.

The St. Joseph Observer (Saint Joseph, Missouri), 12 January 1918 (pg. 1). Death notice for Louis Huggins. Digital image online at www.newspapers.com (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2015-04-29).

40.

Find-a-Grave Memorial no. 159643681. Louis Huggins, born 1 February 1842 at Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky, USA; died 8 January 1918 at Saint Joseph, Buchanan County, Missouri; buried in Mount Mora cemetery, Saint Joseph. Memorial created by “Lyle & Marsha,” 17 May 2016. Online at www.findagrave.com/memorial/159643681/louis-huggins (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2017-08-23).

41.

The Joseph News-Press/Gazette (St. Joseph, Missouri), 8 January 1918 (pg. 2). “Louis Huggins Died Early This Morning.” (obituary.) Digital image online at newspapers.com (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick by subscription, 2019-07-06).

42.

Shaw, William. Saint Joseph City Directory 1869-70. Citing listings for Lewis [sic] and William Huggins. Saint Joseph, Missouri: The Herald Steam Book and Job Printing House, F.M. Posegate, proprietor, 1869.

43.

McDonald, E.L., and W.J. King. History of Buchanan County and St. Joseph, Mo. Citing the Great Western Soap Works, L. Huggins & Co., proprietors, c.1875. St. Joseph, Missouri: Midland Printing Company, [1915].

44.

State of Kentucky (USA). Wills and Probate Records. Will of William Huggins, probate granted 9 November 1869. Original record: Wills, Vol. VI-VII (1862-1872), County Court (Jefferson County). Digital copy online at ancestry.ca (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2015-09-03).

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"The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there."—Lesley Poles Hartley (1895–1972), The Go-Between (1953).

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