Annie Wilson Patterson, Mus.D., composer, teacher, author (1864–1934)

Source: Full Report of the proceedings at The Oireachtas;
or, Irish Literary Festival,
held in the Round Room, Rotunda, Dublin,
on May 17th, 1897.
Dublin: Printed for The Gaelic League by B. Doyle, Gaelic Printer, 1897.

As a child growing up comfortably in a mercantile family in the latter half of the 19th century, Annie Wilson Patterson’s beginnings were not so remarkable. She was born in Lurgan, county Armagh, the eldest child (of nine) of Thomas Rankin Patterson, Esq. (1833–1905) and Martha Isabella Wilson (1836–1900). Mr Patterson was, by turns, an employee with the Belfast Bank in Lurgan, and a partner with Carson Booksellers in Dublin. [1] [2] Martha Patterson’s father, the Rev. Andrew Wilson, was a Reformed Presbyterian minister in Dungannon, [7] and her mother, Isabella Ledlie, descended from the numerous Ledlie family of Carnan, county Tyrone. [3]

Arguably, what stands out in Annie Patterson’s seventy-year mortal career was her singular achievement in earning a Doctor of Music degree from the Royal University of Ireland in 1889. Whereas the degree was bestowed occasionally upon women, such as H.M. Queen Alexandra, in the form of honourary post-nominal letters, for many years Miss Annie W. Patterson was the only woman to attain this academic distinction by virtue of comprehensive examinations. However, Dr Patterson also went on to master composition and conducting, and to become a noted music teacher, author, and lecturer. [4] [5] [6]

Her commitment to fusing classical music with the Irish cultural revival is reflected in her composition of two operas, “The high-king’s daughter,” and “Oisín.”
—William Murphy, Dictionary of Irish Biography. [5]

The following list comprises a timeline of events in the life of Dr. Annie Wilson Patterson:

  • born at Lurgan, county Armagh, c.1864; [1] [6]
  • studied music under Dr James Culwick at Alexandra College, Dublin; [5] [7]
  • gave her first solo performance on the organ at age fifteen; [5]
  • studied under Sir Robert Prescott Stewart at the Royal Irish Academy of Music, also in Dublin, taking her B.A. and Mus.B. degrees, 1887; [5] [6] [8]
  • held the full certificate (free-hand and model drawing) of South Kensington, wrote various poems for recitation, and was a senior medallist in natural science; earned her B.A. degree with honours in modern literature, and in the English, French, and Italian languages; [14]
  • organist at several churches in Dublin, 1887–1897; [5] [8] [14]
  • earned her Mus.D. degree at the Royal University of Ireland, 1889; [5] [8] [14]
  • conducted the Dublin Choral Union, 1891–93; [5] [8] [9] [14]
  • examiner of music at the Royal University of Ireland, 1892–95; [5] [9] [14]
  • studied the Irish language and joined the Gaelic League, 1890s; [5]
  • composed Six Original Gaelic Songs, 1896; [5] [6] [10]
  • took the lead in organizing the first Oireachtas and Feis Ceoil, held in the Round Room of the Rotunda in Dublin in 1897; [5] [11]
  • wrote, “The Characteristic Traits of Irish Music;” [12]
  • conductor of the Hampstead Harmonic Society in England, 1898–1908 [5] [9]
  • contributed articles on music to The Irish Weekly Times, 1899–1901; [6]
  • death of her mother, Martha Isabella Patterson, née Wilson, on the 18th June 1900, in Dublin; [13]
  • resident in Dublin with her father and three sisters, when the 1901 census of Ireland was enumerated; [1]
  • contributed articles to The Girl’s Own Paper in England; [6] [14]
  • published The Story of Oratorio (London & New York: Walter Scott Publishing Co., 1902); [5] [15]
  • published Schumann, having written “not a mere chronicle of facts dryly catalogued, but a lifelike sketch, full of interest and actuality," (Dent, 1903); [5] [16]
  • published Chats With Music Lovers (London, 1905); [5] [17]
  • composed Go mairidh ár nGaedhilg slán. Rallying song of the Gaelic League (Dublin: Connradh na Gaedhilge, 1905); [6]
  • composed Red Hugh, or Life and Death of Hugh Roe O'Donnell, Lord of Tyrconnaill. A Drama in Three Acts with music of the song of victory after the battle of the yellow ford [etc.] (Dublin: M.H. Gill & Son, 1905); [6]
  • death of her father, Thomas Rankin Patterson, Esq., at Castletown, county Donegal, on the 29th November 1905; [18]
  • removed from London to Cork in 1908, where she was employed as the organist in St Anne’s, Shandon; [5] [19]
  • published Beautiful Song and the Singer. An Appreciation of the Methods of Jenny Lind (Dublin: Hely's, 1909); [6] [20]
  • wrote The Interpretation of Irish Music, published in Journal of the Ivernian Society. Vol. 2/5 (1909), pp. 31–42.
  • composed Ivernia. An Arrangement of Irish Airs for Pianoforte (London: Novello & Co., 1911); [6]
  • when the 1911 census of Ireland was enumerated, resided with her sisters, Alexandra and Eva, in Sundays Well Road, Cork; [22]
  • published How to Listen to an Orchestra (London: Hutchinson & Co., 1913); [5] [6]
  • composed The Bells of Shandon. Part Song for S.A.T.B., a choral piece (London: Boosey & Co., 1914); [5] [6]
  • examiner in music at the Cork Municipal School of Music, 1914–1919; [5]
  • composed Ireland for ever. Irish March Song (Chorus) (London: Novello & Co., 1919); [6]
  • examiner in music at the Leinster School of Music, 1919–1926; [5]
  • composed A Lay of Spring. (Song) (London: Novello & Co., 1921); [6]
  • composed Once in Olden Time. A Christmas Carol (London: Novello & Co., 1921); [6]
  • appointed corporation lecturer in music at University College Cork, 1924–1934; [5] [21]
  • composed Brothers. Choral March-Song (London: Duff, Stewart & Co., 1924); [6]
  • published The Profession of Music and How to Prepare for it (London: Wells Gardner & Co., 1926); [5] [6]
  • composed The Jolly Ploughboy. From the Bunting Collection, Arranged for S. A. T. B. (London & Glasgow: Bayley & Ferguson, 1928); [6]
  • composed King Cormac. A Musical Monograph on Irish Folk-Song from the O'Neill Collection, in prelude and fugue form for Pianoforte. Op. 35. No. 1 (Dublin: Pigott & Co., 1928); [6]
  • fell ill with a cold, January 1934; [5]
  • died of broncho-pneumonia on the 16th January 1934, in South Mall, Cork, aged seventy years. [23]

There is a growing movement in England in favour of a national opera scheme. I should like to see that enthusiasm diverted to the establishment of a British opera-centre in Dublin, where it would find more congenial soil, leaving England to its more natural forms of musical expression, oratorio on one hand, and musical comedy on the other. If there were an opera house here, I believe Ireland would soon prove herself able to supply the majority of the personnel, and that original works by Irish composers would soon take a leading place in its repertoire.
—Dr. Annie Patterson (1910).
[24]

Legacy:

  • The annual Feis Ceoil festival continues to this day in Dublin, at which the Dr. Annie Patterson Medal is awarded in her honour. An award of enduring stature, the test pieces for 2019 are “a setting of two Irish airs of contrasting character for voice with Irish harp or Irish harp alone.” [25]
  • The life and works of Dr. Annie Patterson are cited often in academic and biographical works. Examples include:
    • The Musician as Entrepreneur (Indiana University Press, 2004), edited by William Walker, in which Dr Patterson was cited as exemplifying “an unambiguous sense of professionalism;” and in the author’s enquiry as to whether female identity providing opportunities, as well as obstacles, to careers in music.
    • The Role of Women in Music in Nineteenth Century Dublin, PhD dissertation by Jennifer OConnor (National University of Maynooth, 2010), for a discussion of Dr. Pattersons extensive writings.
    • “Gaelic Songs and Foreign Arrangements: Issues of Authenticity and Race in the Reception of Annie Patterson’s 'Traditional Irish Airs’ (1924).” Paper by Ruth Stanley; presented at the Women and Music in Ireland Conference 2012 at the Royal Irish Academy of Music, Dublin, on 15 September 2012 (in Association with the Society for Musicology in Ireland and NUI Maynooth).

Obituary.
Dr. Annie Patterson.
   Dr. Annie Wilson Patterson, authority on Irish music, composer, organist, writer, and lecturer, died at Cork yesterday, aged 65.
   Born in Lurgan, Co. Armagh, Dr. Patterson gained many distinctions in music, and her lecture-recitals all over Ireland and in England were widely appreciated. Through the wireless she reached a greater public and she had made many notable contributions to musical literature.
   Dr. Patterson made her first appearance as an organist at the age of 15 at Dublin, playing a solo written for her by the late Sir Robert Stewart, under whom she studied. Conductor of Dublin Choral Union and formerly organist at Dublin churches, Dr. Patterson was the originator of the Irish Musical Festival, established in 1897 for the cultivation of Irish music.
—The Northern Whig, 17 January 1934.
[26]

Links:

  • “Dr. Annie Wilson Patterson,” published in Irish Society (Dublin), 27 January 1894 ☛ transcript
  • Isabella Ledlie and Rev. George Simpson – Family tree outline
  • Ledlie family history – index page

Sources and notes:

1.

Ireland 1901 Census. Thomas R. Patterson, age 68, wtih daughters Annie W (age 37), Martha (26), Alexandra (23), and Eva (19); Mount Street Upper, Dublin. Index and digital images hosted online by The National Archives of Ireland (Dublin), in a joint venture with Library and Archives, Canada; www.census.nationalarchives.ie (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).
… Abstract:

  • Thomas R. Patterson, head of family, Presbyterian, read and write, age 68, male; Partner, Carson Bros., Booksellers, G[—] St.; widower; born at Castle Shanaghan, co. Donegal
  • Annie W., daughter, …, age 37, female, Professor of Music & Author, not married; born in Lurgan, co. Armagh
  • Martha, daughter, …, age 27, female, House work at home, not married, born in Dublin
  • Alexandra, daughter, …, age 23, …
  • Eva, daughter, …, age 19, …; born at Dalkey, co. Dublin
  • census place: 2 Mount Street Upper, Dublin

2.

Newry Telegraph, 20 March 1859 (pg 3). Marriage notice “On the 25th instant, in the Second Presbyterian Church, Dungannon, by the bride’s father, Thomas R. Patterson, Esq., of the Belfast Bank, Lurgan, to Martha Isabella, youngest daughter of the Rev. Andrew Wilson, and granddaughter of the late Rev. George Simpson, Loughgall.” Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

3.

Belfast News-Letter, 1 August 1828 (pg 2). Marriage notice: “On the 25th ult. the Rev. Andrew Wilson, of Dungannon, daughter of the late Rev. George Simson [sic], of Loughgall, county of Armagh.” Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

4.

Tyrone Courier, 1 August 1907 (pg 6). “The First Lady Music Doctor.” Miss Annie Patterson, native of Lurgan, whose mother was a daughter of the Rev. Andrew Wilson, Presbyterian minister in Dungannon. Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

5.

Murphy, William. “Patterson, Annie Wilson.” Dictionary of Irish Biography. Citing: (1) W. A. Houston Collison, Dr Collison in and on Ireland (1908), 136. (2) O'Donoghue; Cork Examiner, Ir. Independent, Ir. Press, 17 Jan. 1934. (3) Stanley Sadie (ed.), The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, xiv (1980). (4) Anne V. O'Connor and Susan M. Parkes, Gladly learn and gladly teach (1984), 85. (4) Donncha Ó Suilleabháin, Scéal an Oireachtas 1897–1924 (1984), 15, 95. (5) DIH. (6) Beathaisnéis 1882–1982, iii. (7) John A. Murphy, The college (1995), 242. (8) Kit and Cyril Ó Céirín, Women of Ireland: a biographic dictionary (1996). (9) Fintan Vallely (ed.), The companion to Irish traditional music (1999), 121, 27. Digital version hosted online by the Cambridge University Press, dib.cambridge.org (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

6.

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. "Annie Patterson.” Citing: (1) Hixon, Donald L.; Hennessee, Don A. (1993). Women in music: an encyclopedic biobibliography: Volume 1. (2) Fleischmann, Aloys, Music in Ireland: A Symposium, Cork 1952, p. 273; O'Connor, Jennifer (2010): The multi-faceted career of Dr Annie Patterson. "First International Conference on Irish Music and Musicians Music Department, University of Durham, 12–15 July 2010, Abstracts” (www.dur.ac.uk/resources/music/Irishmusicconference-collatedabstracts.doc). Retrieved 27 November 2010. Online at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Patterson (accessed 2019-01-07).

7.

Catholic World. Vol. II (April – Sept. 1890.)“The Higher Education for Catholic Girls.” Extract: “Miss Annie Patterson, who received the distinction of doctor of music in 1889, is also an Alexandra girl.” (pg 619.) New York: The Office of the Catholic World, 1890.

8.

Tyrone Courier, 1 August 1907 (pg 6). “The First Lady Music Doctor.” Miss Annie Patterson, native of Lurgan, whose mother was a daughter of the Rev. Andrew Wilson, Presbyterian minister in Dungannon. Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

9.

Hampshire Chronicle, 31 March 1906 (pg 6). Advert: “Dr. Annie Patterson, Mus. Doc., R.A. (Formerly Examiner in Music, Royal University, Ireland, and Conductor Dublin Choral Union and Hampstead Harmonic Society), Will visit Winchester on Fridays, commencing first Friday after Easter (April 20th) to give Lessons in Singing. Dr. Patterson’s method is based on the best Italian and English systems.—For particulars address Dr. Annie Patterson, 18, Kempford Gardens, Earl’s Court, London, w.; or Mrs. Rebecca Gandy, L.R.A.M., 1, Chernocke Place, South-gate, Winchester.” Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-08).

10.

Patterson, Annie W. Six Original Gaelic Songs: The Words, Gaelic (Irish) and English, by Various Authors; the Music by Annie W. Patterson. London: Boosey & Co., 1896. Citation per Hathi Trust Digital Library, online at catalog.hathitrust.org (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-08).

11.

(i) Full Report of the proceedings at The Oireachtas; or, Irish Literary Festival, held in the Round Room, Rotunda, Dublin, on May 17th, 1897. Dublin: Printed for The Gaelic League by B. Doyle, Gaelic Printer, 1897.
(ii) The Gaelic Journal. Vol. 8, No. 86 (1897). “The Oireachtas.”

12.

Patterson, Annie. “The Characteristic Traits of Irish Music.” Proceedings of the Musical Association 23rd Sess. (1896 - 1897), pp. 91-111. pub. Taylor & Francis, Ltd., for the Royal Music Association.

13.

General Record Office, Ireland. Civil registration of a death. Martha Wilson Patterson, female, married, aged 64 years, wife of book keeper; died 18th June 1900 at 2 Upper Mount Street, Dublin; cause of death: Cirrhosis of liver, cerebral haemorrhage, 2 days, certified; informant: Alexandra R. Patterson, daughter, present at death, 2 Upper Mount Street; registered 23rd June 1900; registrar: Hu Byrne. Superintendent Registrar’s District: South Dublin Union, Registrar’s District: No. 4, Union of South Dublin. Archival refs. No. 254, pg 637/04628151. Digital image online at Irish Genealogy, hosted by the Department of Culture, Heritage, and the Gaeltacht, www.civilrecords.irishgenealogy.ie (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

14.

Irish Society (Dublin), 27 January 1894 (pg 19). “Dr. Annie Wilson Patterson." Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-08). ☛ for full transcript.

15.

Aberdeen Press and Journal, 2 January 1903 (pg 4). Extract: “Her Majesty Queen Alexandra has been graciously pleased to accept a copy of Dr Annie Patterson’s ‘Story of Oratorio,’ the initial volume of ‘The Music Story Series’ which Mr Crowest has projected and is editing for the Walter Scott Publishing Company, Limited. There is a felicitous fitness in Her Majesty’s graciousness, as she and Miss Patterson are the only two ladies wearing the hood and gown of a Doctor of Music, and upon whom the degree has been publicly conferred.” Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick).

16.

Daily Telegraph & Courier (London), 17 April 1903 (pg 6). “Schumann. (Dent.)" Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-08). Transcript:

SCHUMANN.
(D
ENT.)
  In this volume Dr. Annie Patterson, Mus.Doc., B.A., has supplied a really valuable contribution to Schumann literature——not a mere chronicle of facts dryly catalogued, but a lifelike sketch, full of interest and actuality. The authoress, herself a distinguished musician, shares in a measure the literary gifts of the master whose career she so faithfully describes. She has been able therefore first to appreciate and then to set before her readers a side of Schumann’s life less known to the multitude than its more properly musical aspect. In Madame Schumann’s opinion it was easiest to arrive at a just estimate of her husband’s personality from his correspondence. Miss Patterson has done wisely in acting upon so authoritative a judgment, and in permitting the great tone-poet to speak to us through his own pen. Two of Schumann’s letters to Miss Robena Laidlaw (of whose pianistic talents he had the highest esteem) appear for the first time, and serve to throw some light upon the composition of the well-known “Fantasiestücke.” There is, of course, no lack of material for the construction of the lengthy “life” of Schumann. This was precisely what Miss Patterson did not desire to write. Nevertheless, in filling the limited space at her disposal she has displayed much discrimination, and though indulging from time to time in a good deal of comment she never forces herself on the reader at the expense of her subject. Had Dr. Patterson, indeed, given us a little more of her own individuality we should have had no reason to complain. Her little book is dedicated to Fraülein Eugenie Schumann, the composer’s youngest daughter, whose suggestions have been followed in the selection of several appropriate portrait illustrations. It may be confidently recommended to all who prefer to imbibe knowledge in the form of pleasant narrative, and to those who have neither time nor means to seek it at sources of a professedly erudite description.

17.

Globe (London), 30 March 1907 (pg 3). “Mr. Werner Laurie is publishing…a book by Dr. Annie W. Patterson, entitled Chats with Music Lovers." Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-08). Transcript:

  Mr. Werner Laurie is publishing shortly in his Music Lovers’ Library a book by Dr Annie W. Patterson, entitled “Chats with Music Lovers.” As an adjunct to text books and tuition, practical advice, based upon personal experience, is often sought for both by professional and amateur musicians. In a series of chapters upon “How to Enjoy Music,” “How to practise, sing, compose, read text-books, prepare for examinations, get engagements, appear in public, conduct, be an organist, teach, organise musical entertainments, and publish music,” an endeavour has been made by Dr Annie Patterson, in “Chats with Music Lovers,” to bring readers into speedy and intimate touch with the most approved methods of musical culture and proficiency. An effort is also made to suggest systems and courses of indvidual study as an aid in exploration of the great wealth of authoritative information which an ever-increasing output of music literature now places within reach of the earnest aspirant.

18.

General Record Office, Ireland. Civil registration of a death. Thomas Rankin Patterson, male, widower, aged 73 years, Merchant; died 29th November at Castletown, co. Donegal; cause of death: cancer of wind pipe (trachea), 4 years, no medical attendant; informant: Elizabeth Patterson, sister-in-law, present at death, Castletown; registered 11th January 1906; registrar: William MacFeeters. Superintendent Registrar’s District: Strabane Union, Registrar’s District: Raphoe, Union of Strabane. Archival refs. No. 112, pg 257/04564365. Digital image online at Irish Genealogy, hosted by the Department of Culture, Heritage, and the Gaeltacht, www.civilrecords.irishgenealogy.ie (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

19.

Weekly Irish Times, 16 January 1909 (pg 2). Extract: “Miss Annie W. Patterson, Mus Doc., B.A., R.U.I., Sch., and Organ Gold Medalist, R.I.A.M., has been appointed organist of St. Anne’s, Shandon, in the room of Mr. F.G. Walshe, resigned.” Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick).

20.

Weekly Irish Times, 20 March 1909 (pg 13). Extract: “Irish Industries Pageant. … An interesting little ceremony then took place, one of Lord Ikerrin’s sons having the honour of presenting to Her Excellency a copy of Dr. Annie Patterson’s new book, ‘Beautiful Song and the Singer.’ This over, the pages and banner bearers grouped themselves around the dais to witness the dances which were to follow. ...” Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick).

21.

Fleischmann, Aloys, ed. Music in Ireland: A Symposium. Cork University Press, and Oxford: B.H. Blackwell Ltd., 1952. Extract:
   No provision was made for the study of music in Queen’s College, Cork, until 1906 when a Lectureship in Music was created and Frederick St. John Lacy was appointed. In 1908, with the passing of the Irish Universities Act, the lectureship was converted into a professorship. St. John Lacy was succeeded in 1934 by Aloys Fleischmann, M.A., B.Mus., the present occupant of the chair. In 1922 a Professorship of Irish Music was founded by the Cork Corporation, and Carl Hardebeck was appointed. On the resignation of Hardebeck the professorship was converted into a lecture ship [sic] and Dr. Annie Patterson was appointed to the post in 1924, a position which she held with distinction until her death in 1934. (pg 20.)

22.

Ireland 1901 Census. Annie Patterson, age 41, with sisters, Alexandra (33) and Eva (29), in Cork (Cork No. 4 Urban D.E.D., part of). Index and digital images hosted online by The National Archives of Ireland (Dublin), in a joint venture with Library and Archives, Canada; www.census.nationalarchives.ie (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).
… Abstract:

  • Annie Patterson, Head of family, Church of Ireland, read & write, age 41; B.A., Mus.Doc., Univ. of Ireland Professor of Music & Authoress; single; born in Lurgan, co. Armagh; speaks Irish & English
  • Alexandra Patterson, Sister, …, age 33, [no stated occupation], single; born in Dublin, co. Dublin; [Irish Language not ticked]
  • Eva Patterson, Sister, …, age 29, …; born in Dalkey, co. Dublin
  • census place: Sundays Well Road, Cork, county Cork

23.

General Record Office, Ireland. Civil registration of a death. Annie Wilson Patterson, female, spinster, aged 70 years, Doctor of Music; died 16th January at 43 South Mall; cause of death: broncho-pneumonia 10 days, cardiac failure, certified; informant: Eva Patterson, sister, present at death, 43 South Mall; registered 25th January 1934; assistant registrar: Jas. A. Meskill. Superintendent Registrar’s District: Cork, Registrar’s District: Cork Urban No. 5, Union of Cork. Archival refs. No. 493, pg 85/04306857. Digital image online at Irish Genealogy, hosted by the Department of Culture, Heritage, and the Gaeltacht, www.civilrecords.irishgenealogy.ie (accessed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-07).

24.

McHale, Maria. “Hopes for Regeneration: Opera in Revivalist Dublin, 1900–1916.” Citing the Irish Times (June, 1910). In, Music Preferred: Essays in Musicology, Cultural History and Analysis in Honour of Harry White. Lorraine Byrne Bodly, ed. Vienna: Hollitzer Verlag, 2018.

25.

Feis Ceoil. “Syllabus. Dr. Annie Patterson Medal.” Feis Ceoil Association, Dublin. Online at www.feisceoil.ie/syllabus/Dr.-Annie-Patterson-Medal/165.html (accessed 2019-01-08).

26.

Belfast News-Letter, 17 January 1934 (pg 8). Obituary for Dr. Annie Wilson Patterson. Digital image online at The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk (accessed by subscription, and transcribed by Alison Kilpatrick, 2019-01-08).

gaelic-journal-1897

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"The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there."—Lesley Poles Hartley (1895–1972), The Go-Between (1953).

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